Monday, September 30, 2019

A Journey through War

The 3rd of September has brought many changes to my life that will shape the course of my future for years to come. I have signed up to Join the United States Army and will soon be leaving to fght in the war against Great Britain. The war was officially declared on the 18th of June after President Madison was finally persuaded by the War Hawks to battle the British. Madison stated that â€Å"war with the British was inevitable† and then asked Congress to go to war a few months later.After the president's declaration, I thought about Joining the war effort and was reminded of ll the cruel and outrageous actions that the British had performed against the United States. For many years now, The British have been violating our neutral rights and blocking off the French coast from American trading ships. In addition, the British have also been supporting and giving arms to Indian tribes that raid American cities along the Northwest Territory and block expansion into the west.Lastly and most importantly, the British scum have been practicing the horrid act of impressment on American ships and have been kidnapping thousands of American ailors in the search for Navvy deserters. After reflecting over all of these things, I couldn't help but become overcome with rage and anger. At that very moment, I swore to fght for the army and vowed to claim revenge for Britain's actions. I also promised to avenge all of those who had been impressed by the British Navvy and killed in Indian raids. The British have offended and taken advantage of our nation for long enough.It is time to act and show the Brits that we will no longer tolerate their behavior. August 15, 1812 The war has gotten off to a bad start. A few days after I was accepted into the US army and placed under the command of General William Henry Harrison, Congress had ordered for an attack on the British colony of Canada. Thus, we set out from our fort in Detroit and began marching towards Canada. This was going to be my very first battle and I was very anxious to get my first taste of war. I was confident in my fellow soldiers and believed that victory would be unproblematic and straightforward.However, as we marched to our destination, we were met by the British and a group of Native American warriors who were led by Tecumseh. Our general feared the Indian's vicious war tactics and knew that we would certainly face heavy losses if we engaged the British force. That day we were forced to shamefully surrender Fort Detroit and retreat. After our humiliating defeat, morale among my fellow soldiers was drastically low and we soon began developing doubts about victory. A few weeks later, we yet again attempted to invade Canada, but were once again defeated.After our two defeats, morale was at an all-time low and the only thing that even vaguely cheered us up, was the mention of the USS Constitution. The hip had managed to defeat the British vessel, Guerriere and was nicknamed â€Å"Old Ironsid es† when a shot bounced off its hull during battle. It was one the few victories that was heard about in a sea of losses. P. S. I shall not see war for a very long time control over Lake Erie. October 16, 1813 Today is a glorious day and my fellow soldiers and I are relishing a satisfying victory against the British and their Native American allies.It all started on September 10th, 1813, when Oliver Hazard Perry assembled a fleet of military ships and engaged the British naw in Lake Erie. After a long and bloody battle, the American fleet prevailed and Oliver Perry, watching the battle from Put-in-Bay, Ohio sent General Harrison the message, â€Å"We have met the enemy and they are ours. † With Lake Erie under American control, the British frantically evacuated Fort Detroit and hastily headed back for safety in Canada, but in the end, we were able to intercept their troops and force them to wage war.On October 5th, 1813, we fought the British and their Native American a llies in the Battle of Thames. At the end of the bloody battle, we had defeated the enemy force and had managed to kill Tecumseh, he Native American leader who had aided the British in the war. Our luck did not end here, however. A few days after our victory in the Battle of Thames, we attacked the Canadian town of York and set fire to the parliament buildings. After these victories, morale among my fellow soldiers was higher than ever before and we soon grew confident in victory over the British.August 25, 1814 Yesterday was a sad, sad day in American history that I will never forget for as long as I live. Just a couple of months ago, my fellow soldiers and I had enjoyed a heightened sense of confidence in our chance of victory. We believed that as long as the British were still at war with the French, they would not be able to send the majority of their troops to America and would thus, not be able to pose a large threat. However, several months later, we got news that Britain had managed to defeat the French and their brilliant military leader, Napoleon Bonaparte.With the French out of the way, the British were able to concentrate their military efforts on the war with America and were ready launch an attack. On August 24, 1814, British ships sailed into Chesapeake Bay and unloaded 5,000 troops (led by Major General Robert Ross) hat were headed directly for the nation's heart, Washington, DC. As the British marched towards the capitol, President Madison hastily ordered for the concentration of all nearby troops and the safekeeping of American documents such as the Constitution, the Declaration of Independence, and George Washington's Correspondence.In the Battle of Bladensburg, the recently assembled American defenders tried to hold off the large British attack force, but they were quickly overpowered by the well-trained enemy soldiers. As the British continued to advance towards the capitol, Dolley Madison, the first lady (which I am quite fond of) mazingl y risked her life in order to selflessly save President Washington's painting. She was among the last to evacuate the White House. Moments after Dolleys daring act, the British scoundrels barbarically raided and burned important government buildings such as the Capitol and Library of Congress.The British scum also burned down President Madison's home, the White House, a structure that has long been a symbol of freedom and independence for the American people. There seemed to be nothing we could do to protect the city, but fortunately, as if by the will of god, a iolent hurricane and tornado extinguished the fires and drove the British soldiers back to Benedict. After hearing this shocking story, my dislike for the British turned British again and will try to defend the city of Baltimore which is believed to be the next target for the British troops.September 21, 1814 The month of September has brought two glorious victories to the American people and has provided us with revenge for the burning of Washington. The first victory took place in the city of Baltimore. In the city of Baltimore, American troops were strengthening Fort McHenry for the upcoming British siege while my squad and I were helping fortify the city for the impending land based attack. While doing my work, I recall seeing a large and magnificent American flag hanging over the fort.I later learned that the majestic â€Å"Star Spangled Banner Flag† had been sewed by Mary Young Pickersgill on General George Armistead's orders. The British were advancing towards the city quickly and we needed more time to reinforce our defenses. Thus, it was decided that a group of soldiers led by General John Stricker would be sent out to buy time for the Americans. On September 12, 1814, John Stricker's and Robert Ross's forces fought each other in the Battle of North Point. Although they lost the battle, they had bought us time and had even managed to kill Major General Robert Ross.When the British land force arrived, we were ready for them and were able to hold them back easily. Meanwhile, in Fort McHenry, American soldiers were desperately trying to hold off the British naw and keep the fort alive. If this fort fell to the British, the city might have been destroyed and the war might have fallen into their hands. The American defenders however held firm and after 25 hours of bombardment from the British avy, the Brits finally gave up their assault and retreated. After the long, tiresome fght, we celebrated our amazing victory and shouted into the air.During this period of celebration, Francis Scott Key who had seen the whole battle from his ship and was deeply moved by it wrote the poem â€Å"Defense of Fort McHenry'. The poem was set to the tune of a popular British drinking song and was distributed throughout Baltimore on hand bills. While we celebrated our victory in Baltimore, General Sir George Prevost and his 10,000 British troops departed from Canada and attacked New York in the hopes of apturing the seaside city of Plattsburgh. The attack was easily thwarted when a group of American warships on Lake Champlain defeated the British flotilla.The British realized that control over the lake gave the Americans an advantage over their force and they were required to retreat back to Canada. January 15, 1815 The year of 181 5 has brought the American people another outstanding military victory and the end of a long and tiring war. After being defeated in the Battle of Lake Chaplain, the British realized that war with the USA was detrimental and was simply not worth the effort. On December 24, 1814, Britain and America signed a peace treaty in Ghent, Belgium which officially ended the war between the two nations.However, news of the treaty traveled too slowly and troops were not informed of the war's end quickly enough. Thus, on January 8, 181 5, the British and Americans engaged in one last gruesome battle at New Orleans. In the battle, Andrew Jackson's 4,0 00 American ragtag defenders were heavily outnumbered by the 10,000 British troops. However, the British forgot to bring scaling ladders and by simply staying behind earthen defenses and shooting from behind bales of cotton, Jackson Orleans was saved and Jackson became a national hero.After the ending of the war and the victory at New Orleans, people throughout the nation were feeling proud and honored to be an American. In addition, many Americans started to feel an improved sense of patriotism and nationalism. I myself felt proud to be a part of such a great nation. In a matter of a few years, our young country had grown strong enough to defeat the British army and had even gained the respect of other, much older nations. I believe that this war will define the American people for many years to come.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Black America Civil Rights History Essay

How far do you agree that the Black Power movement hindered black civil rights in the 1960s? The Black Power movement significantly hindered Black civil rights in the 1960s to quite a large extent; however other factors contributed to hindering black civil rights in the 1960s such as failure of MLK, White opposition and Civil rights divisions. Black Power clearly hindered the black civil rights movement in the 1960s due to the black panthers which were formed in 1966 and involved around 5,000 members. They were very much influenced by Malcolm X and they wanted to defend their communities from the police. They wanted to bring equality for the working classes; here they hindered the black civil rights movement because they tried to get their message across through violence which led to the blacks gaining an even worse name for themselves due to this group. Black panthers also hindered the black civil rights movement through police brutality. They followed police cars in the ghettos in order to expose police brutality. Black panthers therefore did hinder the black civil rig hts movement significantly due to their violent ways and giving a bad name for the blacks so people’s views did not change about blacks, if anything got worse. The failure of MLK was another factor which hindered the black civil rights, less significantly than Black power however. In Chicago MLK protested against poor ghetto conditions of poor urban blacks. MLK was also not as popular in the north of America as the south and he failed to bring about social and economic change. During 1964/65 there was De Jure segregation but no change to De Facto. MLK’s peaceful protests hindered the black civil rights less so than Black Power due to MLK bringing about awareness through the protests of the harsh treatment of blacks, making many feel sorry for them and some change their attitudes to the blacks who were being treated unfairly. For example, the sit ins in Woolworths with four black students, made them desegregate their lunch counters which raised awareness and meant lack of business for them showed just how harsh blacks were treated. White opposition contributed to the hindering black civil rights, the KKK for example continued to u se violence and bombed a black church after the Birmingham campaign. White citizen councils still held strong. White opposition tried their best to make blacks out to be non equal to them and for blacks not to deserve civil rights. Until 1964, white citizen councils prevented integration in schools in Mississippi. As school desegregation  increased, in some white communities the white citizen councils set up schools privately for white children. Civil Rights Bill was also weakened by congress meaning it hindered the black civil rights movement, however white opposition on slightly contributed to hindering black civil rights because the decisions in congress however didn’t affect the going forward of the acts. Similar to white opposition ,Civil rights divisions also slightly hindered black civil rights movement. Civil rights groups disagreed over tactics (mainly violence or non violence), black and whites working together and integration or separation. In 1967, MLK part of SCLC were against the war, however NAACP continued to support the war and Johnson in order to keep federal support so there was a major clash amongst civil rights groups here. NAACP also refused to work with SNCC and CORE after Me redith was shot. Civil rights divisions therefore slightly hindered the black civil rights movement because even though they all wanted their own, different ways to bring about civil rights for blacks, they all aimed to get civil rights for blacks whether non violent or violent or through separation or integration. They all contributed to bringing about the civil rights movement but in different ways therefore one could say that civil rights divisions only slightly hindered civil rights movement. In conclusion, Black Power was by far the significant factor which hindered black civil rights movements, however the failure of MLK and peaceful protests also hindered black civil rights but to a much less extent. White opposition and civil rights divisions hindered the civil rights movement the least however did contribute to hindering black civil rights as a whole. How accurate is it to say that peaceful protests were the most important reason for the improvement in the civil rights in the years 1955-68? MLK’s policy of peaceful protest was fairly important for the success of the civil rights movement in the years 1955-68, however there were other factors which contributed to the success of the civil rights movement such as Civil Rights groups, Black Power and media. It is therefore accurate to say that MLK’s peaceful protest was not the most important reason for the success of the civil rights movement as the most important reason is civil rights groups and medi a. MLK’s peaceful protests were fairly important in the success of the civil rights movement in the years 1955-68, however not the most important reason. It is safe to say that the protests were fairly important  because SCLC concentrated on the specific racial problems that needed addressing in the south, which was the place where there was the worst racial equality. MLK set up SCLC group in 1957. Some would say that MLK’s peaceful protests were fairly important because King’s main strategy was to attract national attention to racial inequality. This started in a March in Washington in 1963. King demanded the vote for all blacks in front of a crowd of 20,000 outside Lincoln memorial in May 1957. However, MLK’s peaceful protests were only fairly important in the sense that SCLC achieved little in the 3 years after Montgomery with sit ins and wasn’t entirely impactful other than gaining publicity, for the civil rights movement a big success was not made with the peaceful protests. On the other hand Civil Rights Groups were clearly the most important reason for the success of the civil rights movement in the years 1955-68. Other peaceful protest groups such as SNCC, CORE and NAACP were more successful during the civil rights movement. Much of their work was more impactful than MLK’s peaceful protests. For example, during the Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955, NAACP wanted to challenge segregation on the buses and Rose Parks started the Boycott. Without this group MLK wouldn’t have been able to st art his peaceful protests. NAACP were more impactful durwing the civil rights movement especially when James Meredith tried to enter the University of Mississippi but was barred. The NAACP then forced a Supreme court decision to overturn the South state. The governor let Meredith in but without protections, this led to white mobs shooting 2 people and JFK sent federal troops in to protect him. This raised more awareness than MLK’s peaceful protests did and was more impactful which led to a greater improvement in the civil rights movement between 1955-68. Another factor which contributed to the success of the civil rights movement, but contributed less significantly than civil rights groups was Black Power. Black power drew a lot of attention during the 1960s which contributed to the civil rights movement. Economic situation of the blacks during Black Power improved in the first half of the twentieth century, however the ghettos remained centres of poverty, unemployment, poor housing and schooling and constant violence. This is why Black Power only contributed to the success of the civil rights movement in a less significant way than civil rights groups. Black power brought about Black Panther group who had more than 5000  members, and their 30 chapters were mostly in urban centres on the West Coast. They won a great deal of respect in the ghettos, especially for their emphasis on self help. They also set up ghetto clinics to advise on health. Black Power, however was not the most important reason for the success of the civil rights movement due to them being held back by white’s reacting badly. Media also contributed to the success of the civil rights movement and was very much important in helping the civil rights groups publicise events to raise awareness in the years 1955-68. At almost all of the protests and events involving gaining greater equality for blacks there was media coverage which brought attention to the harsh treatment of blacks. For example, during the Freedom Rides of 1961, protestors faced fierce white reactions which brought about publicity and showed pictures of KKK setting fire to the buses which was very impactful as it showed the public a real life pictures of how badly the blacks were being treated. Media however only contributed partially to the success of the civil rights movement as even though it bought about awareness, it did not however make impactful change to how blacks were being treated. In conclusion, it is not totally accurate to say that MLK’s peaceful protests were the most important reason for the success of the civil rights movement in the years 1955-68 because Civil Rights groups were more impactful and gave a greater chance for blacks to gain equality. Both media and Black power brought about awareness for civil rights movement however did not have a great impact in changing lives for blacks. MLK’s peaceful protests however did start the civil rights movement and events such as the Montgomery bus boycott were successful partially and contributed to the success of the civil rights movement between 1955-68.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Internet Resourcing Project Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Internet Resourcing Project - Research Paper Example I know the chances of playing professional football depend as much to the player as the coach. They work together to build the strongest team possible. The players have the grit, the coach uses and makes the plan. I admire the role the coach plays in any ball game. The coach serves as teacher and commander. He is the think tank. In following career in football, it is not my goal to remain as a player but to coach. My plans involve getting a contract in the college athletic division as a football coach. I know there are many skills that I need to develop first and I also need to know the job. This is why I narrowed my research down to focus on coaching college football. My research topic is football. I narrowed it down to college football because I will play as a college football player. However, I don't see myself as a player forever but as a coach. I wanted to help players play their best and be the best they can be. As a coach I know I have the chance to motivate and mentor them. At this stage of my research, I found 30 websites that I believe can be helpful in furthering my subject research. The list of websites includes: My search started with identifying three search directories available in the internet. I did that by searching over Google with the keywords "list of search directories" and found 10,400,000 hits. I scrolled and found the link "major search engine directory" from I clicked the link and it led me to a list of top choice search directories in the web. Among the top picks, I chose Google, AllTheWeb and Teoma. The first search directory that I used was I entered "football" in the search tab and the engine came out with 1,080,000,000 hits. I then scrolled through the lists of URLs and opened links that I thought would help me in my research. Probably because of its high-multitude of hits, I only had to surf 14 pages of URL list to collect 10 websites from this directory. The websites are:

Friday, September 27, 2019

Frankenstein Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 5

Frankenstein - Essay Example or the reader to ignore the place of the author within her own text as Shelley, who portrays the image of avowed atheist, and makes the comparison of human development basing on contrary means encompassing both religious and secular relationships. At the end of the novel, through Frankenstein, the author completes that the moral and spiritual development is possible to attain best through the shading of dogmatic belief structures, which results to the elimination of God upon the attainment of self-realization. There are many ‘monstrous reflections’ in this entire text basing on the critical commentary. Frankenstein’s creature serves as the existence of his short existence, which results to the last freedom of the creature that occurs through the death of his creator. Even though a secular theme continues through the entire novel, it is also impossible to ignore the religious references and the biblical allusions, which provide the complex addition to the text that one could view as being the secular treatise basing on the dangerous nature of knowledge. Even though it can be possible to pare the text down into such non-religious terms, one cannot easily ignore that Frankenstein also contains the great deal of the biblical symbolism, evident particularly on the theme of outcast and the creation story. In the story, the monster is subject to portray as a sympathetic character, especially in regards to the contemporary reader. Through the biblical story, Adam causes his own fate through engaging in sin. His creator, Victor, goes ahead to cause the creature’s hideous existence, and it is through the grotesqueness that eventually leads to the spurning of the creature. It is only upon facing repeated rejection that leads the creature into becoming violent and thus deciding to seek revenge. The allegory of creation becomes clear to the reader right from the beginning of the novel. Despite lacking cultivation and learning through the morals and ethics of

Thursday, September 26, 2019

BRAHMS REQUIEM Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

BRAHMS REQUIEM - Assignment Example He had filled the workplace of Meister. The courts and rear ways of the poor quarter in which he existed were continually resonating with the tunes of youngsters, in which he joined generously, with his high soprano voice. He was a fun loving, Normal sprightly kid, sound and ordinary youngster. There was never any uncertainty as to his turning into an artist. From promptly adolescence he took in everything his father could show him, read everything. In the first place he could lay involved, rehearsed with un- Music straying eagerness, and filled reams of Study paper with activities and varieties (Brahms, 1-9). 2. Compare the experience of listening to Brahms’ Requiem to other musical performances you have seen this semester. To what extent is the Ellen Eccles a fitting venue for a performance of this kind? Different arrangers on their aesthetic work have investigated the key existential address in significantly particular courses through a medium that, as I would see it, is unsurpassed around the different manifestations of creative declaration in its capability to achieve the center of our being. Whats more when you have the chance to really sing these meets expectations, the knowledge of them could be upbeat. It doesnt get significantly more particular than that! What can one say in regards to the Mozart Requiem? The quick remarks made here address its energy and to the virtuoso of a writer whose blessing has given mankind the most wonderful and roused musical works ever to jump from the creative ability. The complexity between the Mozart and the Berlioz in their musical structure and inclination is hitting with Berlioz commitment being no less esteemed for the distinction. As Lynn has noted, the specialized requests on the soloists of both structures are considerable and this however shows that Brahms verbalization the extent that his

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

The Financial and Economic Environment of a US website business Essay

The Financial and Economic Environment of a US website business targeting South African students - Essay Example The services provided are universities/colleges details with their respective courses, course details, and online resources, career counseling through emails, telephone and online-conferencing, and student visa assistance. Price: The price charged from the students is based on the type of membership. There are two types of membership- Basic and Premium. The services for the Premium members are in addition to the services which Basic members will avail. The membership fee is US$30 for Basic members and US$50 for Premium members on annual basis. Place: The customer will be able to subscribe and pay online. According to the membership, the customer will be provided with a login id and password from which it can access the services offered to him/her. Promotion: As this is an online service, the target group of customers can be reached out through advertising in career magazines, local newspapers, online via social networking sites, and promotional campaigns setup in the schools and coll eges campus. Financial & Economic Environment South Africa has a well-developed financial and legal environment with its stock exchange the world’s 18th largest exchange, ranked 17th with market value $1.013 trillion in 2010. It is one the most advanced developing countries on African continent. It is a middle-income economy with abundant natural resources. The country’s former fiscal policy was conservative mainly focused on controlling inflation and reducing budget deficit. The policies still exist but the recent global recession has put pressure to provide with the basic services to poorer sections and provide for employment guarantees. The unemployment stands at 25% which is high as compared to other economies such as US and UK which are at 107... The paper tells that South Africa has a well-developed financial and legal environment with its stock exchange the world’s 18th largest exchange, ranked 17th with market value $1.013 trillion in 2010. It is one the most advanced developing countries on African continent. It is a middle-income economy with abundant natural resources. The country’s former fiscal policy was conservative mainly focused on controlling inflation and reducing budget deficit. The policies still exist but the recent global recession has put pressure to provide with the basic services to poorer sections and provide for employment guarantees. The unemployment stands at 25% which is high as compared to other economies such as US and UK which are at 107 and 87 respectively. In 2000 population below poverty lines was 50%. South Africa is ranked 30th in terms of Foreign Direct investment at home. South Africa’s main trading partners include China, Germany US, Japan and UK. The country was the h ost for 2010 FIFA World Cup which boosted its business revenues and infrastructure. USA is the market-oriented economy with the most advanced technology. In many previous years the country has been the net importer of the goods and services being the number 1 importer in the world and ranked 4th in exports. Its population below poverty line stands at 15.1% and unemployment rate at 9.6% in 2010. The country is also the largest consumer of oil. The US and South Africa signed a $120 million investment fund protocol under OPIC (Overseas Private Investment Corporation) in 1996 for equity investments in South Africa.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Crimminal justice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Crimminal justice - Essay Example And, Article III ensures both federalism and separation of powers by providing a mechanism for the Supreme Court to put forward guidelines for the lower courts. It is pointed out that â€Å"the Constitution clearly does limit in important ways congressional power to shift ultimate judicial power from federal to state courts† (Amar 271). Additionally, there are mechanisms such as â€Å"the case or controversy requirement, also called the â€Å"justiciability† doctrine, includes more specialised notions of ripeness, mooteness, and standing to sue, and prohibits consideration of constitutional issues except as a necessary incident to the resolution of a concrete â€Å"case† or â€Å"controversy† (Brilmayer 297). Also, judicial precedent is one of the constitutional provisions for ensuring coherence in the praxis of criminal justice in the United States. The doctrine of judicial precedent in America is closely linked to other constitutional provisions such as the hierarchy of courts, separation of powers, judicial supremacy and the ideology of judicial adjudication. The interpretative nature of judica precedent is based on the fact that â€Å"judicial outcomes are fundamentally indeterminate† (Shapiro and Sweet 122). However, judicial precedent functions in all direction as all courts have to refer at each other decisions on criminal justice of similar type irrespective of the court hierarchy. It means that judicial precedents, in practice, â€Å"help judicial law-making -an intrinsically decentralized mode of governance- achieve a semblance of centralization and systematic coherence† (Shapiro and Sweet 121). American federalism is deep and substantial as it allows an inherently heterogeneous legal system wherein state laws exist in competition with what is legal in the federal realm and other states. American criminal justice system too is highly influenced by the

Monday, September 23, 2019

Metaphors Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Metaphors - Assignment Example In other words, mediation helps in predicting the behaviors and attitudes of hosts. For instance, when a mediator applies the metaphor that â€Å"conflict is war†, then the conflicting parties are likely to behave aggressively to win the war, which may never be reaching a conclusion (Smith, 2005). Similarly, when the mediator adopts a metaphor that â€Å"being in a conflict in not being in a war†, then the parties will strive to make an assumption and find a solution to their problem. Smith also presents that metaphors work by structuring and evaluating an individual’s experiences by positioning them to the problem (Smith, 2005). Through this process, it is possible to discover an individual’s hidden assumptions, needs, behaviors, emotions, facts and intuitions, and bring them working as a whole. As a psychotherapist, I feel that the use of metaphors can successfully reconcile conflicting parties. This is because metaphors can highly influence and work effectively to promote a negotiation problem. The use of metaphor offers a mediator an opportunity to treat each viewpoint as a ration argument, making him or her take a neutral stance in the dispute being resolved. This also improves the mediator’s influence to avoid hostile confrontation. Lorig Charkoudian, in his article, identifies that police officers are frequently called to solve neighborhood disputes, which range from minor conflicts to violent confrontations. However, police interventions usually stop the conflict just for some time. Additionally, police response is usually inadequate, and successive calls to solve the same problems can be expensive to the police department. Police are currently encouraging the community to resort to dispute resolution centers to prevent repeat calls, reduce time spent on solving disputes and limit police work in processing lawsuits (Charkoudian, 2005). I agree with the author, over these

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Explore the theme of escapism in Peter Pan Essay Example for Free

Explore the theme of escapism in Peter Pan Essay The theme of escapism is prominent in much childrens literature. Frances Hodgson-Burnetts The Secret Garden is, like Peter Pan, an example of Edwardian childrens literature. Both these novels are tales of escapism from real life into another world. There are also more recent examples of escapism in childrens literature. In the 1950s C. S. Lewis invented Narnia, and in even more recent literature, Harry Potter escapes his everyday life to go to school at Hogwarts. J. M. Barries Peter Pan, an early Edwardian novel, is one of the great classics of British childrens literature and is, on the surface, a tale about a boy who refused to grow up. There is however, an underlying plot concerning a girl who must grow up. It is from this obligation that Barries Neverland acts as a form of escape. Throughout Peter Pan, there is little focus on the female characters. It is almost assumed that Wendy will grow up and become a Mother, as all daughters do. Although Neverland allows Wendy to escape from her home and from the domestic world she knows, she does not escape domesticity altogether. She almost becomes mother to the Lost Boys, and is given a number of domestic duties such as ironing Peters shadow. However, Wendys relationship with Peter is not entirely conventional. She appears to be the closest thing Peter has to a girlfriend, as he rejects the sexual advances of both Tinkerbell and Tiger Lily. However, Wendy also appears to be acting as his mother, something Peter has been deprived of his whole life. It is the childish energy of Barries imagination filled with such a splendid jumble of pirates, redskins, fairies and mermaids that enthrals so many children (Carpenter p172). Through this manipulation of other peoples minds and emotions, Barrie carries them off from the real world to a country of his own invention (Carpenter p179). Barrie seems to be presenting his readers with a substitute faith, to act as a form of escape from the Christian teachings of the Victorian era. It has even been suggested that Peter Pan is in fact an alternative religion. Humphrey Carpenter suggests that in many respects Peter is Christ-like. Possibly the most obvious example of this is when he takes Wendy and her brothers on a flight of fantasy to his own heavenly land (Carpenter p182). The Lost Boys who live there seem to represent the souls of the dead as Peter asserts, They are the children who fall out of their prams when the nurse is looking the other way, therefore further increasing Neverlands resemblance of heaven. The concept of escaping to heaven was extremely important to Barrie. He lost his brother David at a young age and subsequently spent much of his life trying to become a living version of the boy who by dying remained ever young (Wallshli ger p120). To observe Peter and Hook as the Christ and Satan of Barries religion, the reader must have faith in the novel. The theme of belief is interesting throughout Peter Pan as the reader is, like the Darling children, constantly being asked, Do you believe? In order to fly, the Darling children must have faith, and think lovely wonderful thoughts, as Peters fairy dust is, in itself not enough. In turn the reader or audience must have faith and believe in the fact that a child can fly. Similarly, in order to escape to Neverland, a reader must have faith that there is such a place somewhere past the second star to the right and straight on until morning. The theme of belief is particularly important at the end of Barries story when the darling children lose their faith and no longer believe in Peter, and so cannot see him. Though faith and belief are important in Peter Pan, the dream of escaping to another world seems to be almost self-sufficient. Barrie implies there is little need to grow up or awaken from this dream as it is in fact already framed by the Edwardian domesticity of the real world where wealth and relationships are important. Carpenter in fact goes further than this by asserting that children must not grow up and claims that to visit Neverland requires an act of belief that children cannot sustain as they grow up (Carpenter p180). Peter himself seems to be of the opinion that it is only children, who can escape the drudgery of everyday life and claims, I want always to be a little boy, and to have fun. Barries adventure story and his creation of such a magical hero seems to have achieved what so much childrens literature had previously tried to do. Peter represents the shift from the Victorian perception of the child as a moral icon to a craze for the child as a fun-loving playboy hero (Wallshli ger p111). Peter has no memory or emotion, and so can live only for the moment and experiences ecstasies that other children can never know (Wallshli ger p117). Peter is an asexual child rather than a young man. Barrie himself was also somewhat sexless, and it is doubtful whether his marriage was ever consummated. This lack of sexuality and romantic relationship is represented well on stage as Peter is often played by an actress, and is therefore viewed as an androgynous figure. Another interesting aspect of the casting of Peter Pan is that of Mr. Darling and Hook, who traditionally, are played by the same actor. This becomes particularly significant when considering the theme of masculinity in Peter Pan. There is much evidence of male competitiveness in the novel. The most obvious example of this is Peters dual with Hook, which appears to be an assertion of masculinity by Peter. It is particularly interesting that it is Peter and the lost boys who triumph over Hook who is a mature villain. This youthful triumph acts as another form of escape for a young reader. Traditionally in Victorian society adults were in control and would have power over children. In Barries Childrens fantasy, it is youth and sexual immaturity that enable Peter to triumph over his adult rivals. It has been suggested by many critics that Peter, The boy who wouldnt grow up, is a representation of Barrie himself. Barrie was a short man and despite a moustache retained a markedly boyish look until old age (Carpenter p173). He was in a physical respect, quite literally, a boy who couldnt grow up. This figure of a man in a childs body is undoubtedly the principle model for Peter, who is neither child nor adult (Carpenter p177).

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Absorbance of light by a transition metal complex investigation Essay Example for Free

Absorbance of light by a transition metal complex investigation Essay Introduction Commonly known as transition metals, d block elements have partially filled d sublevels in one or more of their oxidation states. It is in the first row of transition elements that the 3d sub-level is incomplete. These d block elements show certain characteristic properties such as multiple oxidation states, ability to form complex ions, coloured compounds and good catalytic properties. In terms of variable oxidation states, d block elements usually have a +2 oxidation number which corresponds to the loss of the two 4s electrons (as it is easier to lose the 4s electrons than the 3d electrons). Transition metals can have variable oxidation states because the ionization energies allow for up to two 3d electrons to be lost. Because transition metals are relatively small in size, the transition metal ions attract species that are rich in electrons ligands (neutral molecules or negative ions that contain non-bonding pair of electrons which when covalently bonded with and form complex ions. Because the d orbitals usually split up into two groups (high and low) in transition metal complex ions, the energy required to promote a d electron into the higher split level corresponds with a particular wavelength in the visible region, which is absorbed when light passes through the complex ion. Transition metal usually then exhibits the remaining energy/light the complementary colour. In this investigation, the different absorbance of these coloured solutions will be investigated by varying the number of moles of the transition metal in the solution. According to the Beer-Lambert law, absorbance is directly proportional to the concentration and that there is a logarithmic dependence between the absorbance and the concentration of the substance, this relationship is as shown in figure 1 and 2. In the graph representation of the Beer-Lambert law, the logarithmic relationship can evidently be seen as the concentration of the solution increases, the calibration curve becomes less linear and more flat. This is probably due to the saturation of colour of the solution. In addition, the graph also indicates that the relationship starts at the origin and is generally linear at lower concentrations. In this investigation, Nickel (II) Sulphate will be used as the transition metal and H2O will be used as the ligand. The complex ion formed will therefore be a hexaaquanickel(II) complex ion, Ni (H2O) 6 2+. It has a coordination number of 6 and is of an octahedral shape. (Microsoft Encarta, 2007) Aim To investigate how the concentration of hexaaquanickel(II) ions (Ni (H2O) 6 2+) in solution affects the absorbance of red light (660nm) by measuring it with a colorimeter. Hypothesis As the concentration of hexaaquanickel(II) ions increases, the absorbance of red light1 will also increase. This is so because as stated in the Beer-Lambert law, the absorbance of light is directly proportional to the concentration. Furthermore, as the concentration increases, there are more molecules of the complex ions within the solution to interact with the light that is being transmitted hence an increased absorbance at higher concentrations. In addition, despite the logarithmic relationship, I expect my data to show a linear relationship instead because the number of moles I am measuring red absorbance against is rather low (maximum 0.5 moles), so while it would be insufficient to see the clear logarithmic curve; the linear increase in the beginning would still be evident. Variables Independent Concentration of hexaaquanickel(II) ions (0.0313mol, 0.0625mol, 0.125mol, 0.250mol, 0.500mol) Dependent Absorbency of red light (660nm) Controlled Volume of solution (25cmà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ per different mol solution) Equipment Method 1) Measure 6.57g of nickel sulphate with an electronic balance and place in a 250cmà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ beaker 2) Measure 50cmà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ of deionised water with 50cmà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ measuring cylinder and pour into the 250cmà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ beaker with the nickel sulphate to create a 0.5mol nickel sulphate solution 3) Mix the solution thoroughly with a glass stirring rod, make sure the solution is transparent (not murky) and no remnants of the nickel sulphate should be present in the solution 4) Label the five 50cmà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ volumetric flasks: 0.03125mol, 0.0625mol, 0.125mol, 0.25mol and 0.5mol 5) Pipette 25cmà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ of the previously made nickel sulphate solution from the 250cmà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ beaker and place into volumetric flask labeled 0.5mol 6) Pipette another 25cmà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ from the beaker and place into volumetric flask labeled 0.25mol 7) Measure and pipette 25cmà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ of deionised water and add into 0.25mol 8) Mix thoroughly 9) Measure and pipette 25cmà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ from 0.25mol and add into 0.125mol 10) Repeat steps 7 to 8 but add the water into 0.125mol 11) Measure and pipette 25cmà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ from 0.125mol and add into 0.0625mol 12) Repeat step 10 but add into the water 0.0625mol 13) Measure and pipette 25cmà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ from 0.0625mol and add into 0.0313 mol 14) Repeat step 10 but add into the water0.0313mol 15) Connect the PASPORT colorimeter to the computer 16) Select to measure red (660nm) absorbance 17) After all five solutions have been made, label five cuvettes the same labels as the volumetric flasks (place on lid, careful not to have any of the label on the cuvette itself) 18) Fill each labeled cuvette with its corresponding volumetric flask label with a dropper 19) Fill the remaining unlabeled cuvette with water 20) Place the cuvette with water into the colorimeter and press green button to calibrate, do not do anything until the green light switches off by itself 21) Place the cuvette labeled 0.03125mol into the colorimeter press start and stop after getting a constant reading 22) Record the data 23) Repeat steps 21-22 until all labeled cuvettes have been measured for red absorbance Data Table Concentration / mol dm-à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Red light (660nm) absorbance Uncertainties Uncertainties (cm3) Measuring cylinder à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½1.0cmà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Bulb pipette à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.06 cmà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Electronic weigh à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.01g Concentration (mol/dmà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½) Uncertainty Graphs Discussion and Conclusion It can be seen from the graph that there is a linear relationship between the amount of red light absorbed and the concentration of hexaaquanickel(II) ions. It can also be deduced that as the concentration increases, the red light absorption increases at twice the rate. However, it is interesting to note that the line of best fit does not start at the origin, but at (0, 0.0623) as the equation derived from the line of best fit states, suggesting that despite showing a clear linear trend, my data is precise but not accurate. This is possibly due to equipment imperfection, for example the cuvette, which will be discussed in the evaluation. However, it is still evident that, as stated in my hypothesis, as the concentration increases, the chances of light interacting with the complex ion molecules also increase, hence yielding a higher light (red, in this case) absorption. While it is true that the Beer-Lambert law states the relationship between concentration of a substance and its absorbency has a logarithmic relationship, my data is linear because the concentrations of my tested solutions were rather low, so if I were to continue my experiment and create more concentrated nickel sulphate solutions, I would expect to see the curve become non-linear as concentration increases because the solution will eventually become saturated. Therefore, in conclusion, my hypothesis corresponds with the results: the relationship between red absorbance and concentration of hexaaquanickel(II) ions is quite clear as the concentration increases, the red absorbance also increases. Evaluation One aspect I can improve my method is using the same cuvette and in the same direction each time for measuring all the different solutions, as it has been noted that the cuvettes we have been currently using are not perfectly constructed and may differ with the distance as light passes through. This will help improve the accuracy of the results and an important aspect to take into consideration, because also stated in the Beer-Lambert law, the length in which the light passes through also makes a difference in the absorption of light (the longer the container is, the more chances of light interacting with the molecules of the solution). Another aspect was in the preparing the different solutions, because I had diluted each solution using the same solutions from before, so the uncertainty of each would naturally continuously build up (final uncertainty of 4.31%) for example, if I had accidentally created a 0.052 mol nickel sulphate solution, then the next solution I diluted from that solution would not be 0.025 mol as intended. One way to see through this limitation is to perhaps prepare each solution separately to avoid a build up of uncertainties. In addition, another way to make this investigation more conclusive and detailed could be increasing the different amounts of concentration of the nickel sulphate solution, as I only had 5 different concentrations. Bibliography Clark, J. (2007). The Beer-Lambert law. In Absorption spectra. Retrieved January 15, 2008, from Microsoft(r) Encarta(r) Online Encyclopedia. (2007). Complex. Retrieved January 17, 2008, from Neuss, G. (2007). Determining the concentration of an element. In Chemistry course companion (p. 276). Oxford University Press. 1 Because nickel sulphate solution is green in colour, red light will be used to measure the absorbency of the solution as it is the complementary colour.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Analysis of the Public Health User Fee Reforms in Malawi

Analysis of the Public Health User Fee Reforms in Malawi RESEARCH PROPOSAL Research title: The political economy analysis of the implementation of public health user fee reforms in Malawi. BACKGROUND AND BRIEF LITERATURE REVIEW The economic crises of the 1970s and 80s led many countries to undergo structural reforms that called for reduced public expenditure for basic services. The reforms resulted in the introduction of cost sharing on the part of beneficiaries (Lucas 1988). In several countries, user fees were imposed as a means to address recurrent costs problems and an extra source of revenue for previously â€Å"undervalued† services of professional providers. Countries responded differently to the introduction of user charges depending on domestic political risk and institutional capacity to efficiently administer the fees. With the reforms, public financing of health declined in many countries, and in some cases, private service providers seized the opportunity to fill the gap (Romer, 1986). Although the involvement of private service providers helped to meet demand for those able to pay, it limited access of the poor to the same services due to the prohibitive costs. Over the past ten years, research on economic growth has demonstrated that human capital is a powerful force in the development process (Becker 1990). In consequence, a sustained increase in this form of capital is crucial for poverty reduction in low-income countries and for an ever rising standard of living. Health is one of the commonly used proxies for human capital an unobservable magnitude or force that is part and parcel of human beings (Schultz 1960). Developing countries are struggling to improve the lives of people living in both rural and urban areas. The big challenge in these countries is lack of resources and problems in allocating the scarce resources. Various governments have prioritized different sectors depending on the needs and demands of the people. Some have prioritized primary education and agriculture while others have prioritized mining and health sector. Developing countries have come up with different interventions purposed to cushion people and be able to manage the risk. Some interventions have taken the form of subsidy while others have taken the form of user fee exemption to mention but two (Schultz 1961). These interventions sometimes are driven by politics, that is why for one to effectively intervene needs to understand the interplay of politics and economics in the developing countries. Depending on policy makers, some would prefer to implement subsidy programmes while others would have user fees exemption or both. User fees are charges one pays at the point of use. The stated interventions are good for the people but to the larger extent over burden the already struggling economy of the developing countries, (Litvack et al 1993). Consequently, government sectors suffer due to being underfunded which has resulted to poor service delivery defeating the whole purpose of subsidy or user fee exemption. Some countries, thus, they have resorted to meet the deficit through the introduction of user fees. For example, in respective of health for all, Malawi government offers free public health services to everyone in the country (ibid). Through observation, the public health services in Malawi particularly those in bordering districts such as Mchinji, Nsanje, Mwanza and Mulanje face very stiff competition on health resources because the hospitals in these districts serve even those from the neighboring countries such as Zambia and Mozambique. Currently with the growing population, government is failing to meet the demand of the free public health services which is manifested through the lack of medical resources in the hospitals. Lack of resources might be because the government has a limited tax base to finance the public health services. For instance, in Daily Times of 18th August, 2014 carried a story that Kamuzu central hospital had suspended all the booked surgeries because the hospital had no medical resources required to carry out operations in the theaters. Burns unit department also suffered the same. In such circumstances the introduction of user fee in public hospitals becomes not an option but a necessity. The user fees may therefore, help in three aspects within health service sector: improving efficiency by moderating demand, containing cost, and mobilize more funds for health care than existing sources provided PROBLEM STATEMENT The aim of free public health services in Malawi was to bring equality and equity in accessing health services. It has been argued that with user fees in accessing public health services, the poor people could be disadvantaged. Axiomatically, healthy people make healthy nation and participate actively in the development activities. Defeating the aim of free public health services, it is the same poor people who are now struggling while the better off and even politicians use the private hospitals. Every person has got the right to good quality health, but the poor people in Malawi are now voiceless and spend painfully on the services that were meant to be free. The situation begs a question that are the public services in Malawi really free at all when a person is told to buy aspirin tablets in private hospitals or pharmacies while the public hospitals have given the medicine to undeserving individuals such as those coming from other neighboring countries e.g. Mozambique just because public hospitals in Malawi are free. Poor people are also voiceless and lack responsibility on the hospital resources for it is given to them for free. Hospital workers have been frustrated because their working environment is not conducive since they are forced to work even when they do not have resources and are sometimes frustrated due late or nor payment at all for the extra hours rendered. Provision of quality health services is one of the social indicators of development. However, looking at the persistent resource shortages in the public health sector, Malawi as a country is far behind the expectation. Optionally, national policy makers in some countries such as Kenya and Mozambique thought to enlarge government revenue base through the introduction and implementation of user fee with an aim of improving services, for example, by improving drug availability and the general quality of health care and extending public health coverage. Therefore, the current study aims at undertaking the political economy analysis of the implementation of public health user fee reforms in Malawi. The study will be guided by the following sampled questions: What are the challenges towards the implementation of public health user fees in Malawi? What is the reaction of policy makers towards public health user fee implementation? Is user fee good option to finance public hospitals Can Malawi manage to embrace user fee policy (in terms of attitudes, willingness and capacity) How much is raised from the paying ward in the central hospitals, are the services different from the non-paying ward? If they are different, how do they differ? And how is money used. Has it brought any change? What are the problems that public hospitals meet? OBJECTIVES Main objective: to undertake the political economy analysis of the implementation of public health user fee reforms in Malawi. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES Exploring the historical discourse of public health user fee in Malawi. Determining the reasons of government failure to introduce and implement user fee in public hospitals. Analysing how people have been deprived of good health services through free public health services in Malawi. Comparing the challenges in managing the resources faced in the CHAM hospitals and public hospitals. Analysing stakeholders’ attitude, willingness and ability to embrace public health user fee implementation policy. HYPOTHESIS Poor quality of public health services can motivate public willingness to pay towards some improvement of the services Inadequate funding leads to poor public health services in Malawi Malawians are deprived of quality public health services through free public health services. User fee reform in public health services can lead to efficiency and equity in public health resources in public hospitals. Politicians wish to introduce public health user fee reform but are deterred by the fear of losing popularity METHODOLOGY STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS The study will mainly use qualitative descriptive and analytical cross sectional approach. Objective 1 and 2 on public health user fee trend and government failure to introduce and implement the same respectively will use qualitative descriptive approach. Whilst objectives 3-5 on analysis of people’s deprivation of good health, comparison of challenges in managing resources and analysis of stakeholder’s attitudes respectively will employ qualitative analytical approach. STUDY SETTTING The study will take place in Malawi, population n of people; the ministry of health headquarters in Lilongwe, Malawi’s four central hospitals, n number of district hospitals n community hospitals and n health centers. There are also CHAM facilities, private hospitals and NGOs (both local and international) that support health system. The study will focus in all central hospitals because they provide tertiary management care. The ministry of health, because it is the headquarters, some selected CHAM facilities in four regions and few selected NGOs in Malawi. TARGET POPULATION Objective 1-2 will target key informants at the headquarters and in the central hospitals and the reviews of available literature in Malawi. Objective 3 will target the discharged patients in the central hospitals and some community around the selected hospitals. Objective 4 will target the health workers in CHAM and central hospitals. Objective 5 will focus on key informants in NGOs which work with health sector. SAMPLING STRATEGY Since the study will employ qualitative design, hence, participants will be selected purposively. DATA COLLECTION PROCESS Before data collection, consent will be obtained from the ministry of health head-quarters and all in-charges of the facilities where the study is going to take place. The research will be explained to the participants to seek their informed consent. Data collection tools will be pre-tested, these will include interview guide for 1) discharged patients to find out any deprivation of their care, 2) health care workers to assess the challenges in resources 3) key informants to analyse their attitudes. And checklist to assess challenges faced by health care workers and patients deprivation of care. ETHICAL CONSIDERATION In carrying out the proposed research, the concept of research ethics will not be ignored. All people involved in this research will have to give consent. No one is going to participate against his or her will but the research would prefer to have full participation from the participants and not partial. Attention will be deployed to make sure that people’s rights are not violated through this research. Participants will be told the aim of the research and everything crucial so that they should be able to give informed consent. Participants’ identity will not be revealed in the data presentation and analysis. However, upon request, some participants predominantly NGOs will have the copy of the research findings. DATA MANAGEMENT Data will be transcribed from Chichewa to English then themes will be developed from which quantitative data will be analysed while quantitative part will be managed by SPSS. Data will be kept confidential unless strict measures are taken to access the same. PRESENTATION OF DATA The data will be presented through quotes and where necessary tables and graphs will be used for the part of quantitative. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The nature of the research demands SIDA’s Power Analysis framework. The introduction and implementation of public health user fee involves power of various stakeholders who have different powers of influence. The research then aims to analyse and gauge how much power Do these stakeholders have towards the introduction and implementation of user fees in public health services, (Shaw RP et al, 1995). SIDA’s power analysis focuses on understanding structural factors impeding poverty reduction as well as incentives and disincentives for pro-poor development. Thus, health sector is a hub to development of which the poor have to be targeted. SIDA power analysis tool also serves to stimulate thinking about processes of change in terms of what can be done about formal and informal power relations, power structures and the actors contributing to it. The framework seeks to either deepen knowledge, facilitate dialogue, foster influence or feed into policy developing and programming of which in this case will be the introduction and implementation of user fee in public hospitals (Shaw RP et al, 1995). In the same vein, political economy analysis also looks at the interaction of formal and informal institutions. The collected data will also be subjected to the critical analysis under the interaction of informal and formal institutions (ibid). 8.0 JUSTIFICATION OF THE RESEARCH The current research is of paramount importance to the people of Malawi. The study will facilitate the improvement of public health services throughout Malawi. The big problem in the health sector is inadequate resources, consequently, the research is purported to carry out analysis of how public health user fee can be an alternative to financing public hospitals. The improvement in public health services entails healthy people who can actively participate in development activities. The success in the implementation public health user fee will help not to over burden the government because public health hospitals will be able to meet some needs through user fee, hence, the government will be able use the part of budget allocated to the health sector in other sectors of priority. The study will provide an insight of development health sector and bring satisfaction to people especially those who use public health services. The study assumes that if the public health user fee reform is implemented, people will access the services of higher quality compared to the current situation in which patients are told to buy the prescribed medication in the private pharmacy because hospitals have no medicine. In this then, the implementation of user fee reduces the cost of accessing public health services in Malawi. No country can develop if the health services are poor. The vitality of the current study cannot be over emphasized, if it will be well done, Malawi as a country will register good health and social development. REFERENCES Becker, Gary (1991). A Treatise on the Family. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press. Lucas, Robert, E. (1988). On the Mechanics of Economic Development. Journal of Monetary Economics 22(1): 3-42. Pritchett, Lant and Lawrence H. Summers (1996). Wealthier is Healthier. The Journal of Human Resources XXX(4): 841-68. Schultz, Theodore W (1960). Human Capital Formation by Education, Journal of Political Economy 68(6): 571-83. Schultz, Theodore W (1963). The Economic Value of Education. New York: Columbia University Press. Schultz, Theodore W (1961). Investing in Human Capital. The American Economic Review 51(1): 1-17. Romer, Paul (1986). Increasing Returns and Long Run Growth. Journal of Political Economy 94. Shaw RP, Griffin C. (1995), SIDA power analysis Washington DC: World Bank Sophie Witter (2010) Mapping user fees for health care in high-mortality countries: evidence from a recent survey ; HLSP institute Audibert M, Mathonnat J. 2000. Cost recovery in Mauritania: initial lessons. Health Policy Plan: Chawla M, Ellis RP. 2000. The impact of financing and quality changes on healthcare demand in Niger. Health Policy Plan: 76-84. Lucy Gilson ()The Lessons of User Fee Experience in Africa Center for Health Policy, Department of Community Health, University of Witwatersrand, South Africa, and Health Economics and Financing Programme, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom. Litvack J, Bodart C. ( 1993) User fees plus quality equals improved access to health care: results of a field experiment in Cameroon. Social Science and Medicine. Mbugua JK, Bloom GH, Segall MM (1995). Impact of user charges on vulnerable groups: the case of Kibwezi in rural Kenya. Social Science and Medicine. Moses S, Manji F, Bradley JE, Nagelkerke NJ, Malisa MA, Plummer FA (1992). Impact of user fees on attendance at a referral centre for sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. Lancet

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Legalization Of Cannibalism :: essays research papers

Virginia Woolf once said, â€Å"One cannot think well, love well, sleep well, if one has not dined well.† This is one of the many arguments behind legalizing cannibalism. If the act of eating other human beings was legalized and regulated it will solve all the problems of modern society. Cannibalism has been around since the Neolithic times. It is not currently practiced, but I think a revival of this age-old practice would benefit everyone. Cannibalism can solve world hunger. It can improve our criminal justice system. Cannibalism will also put an end to over population and spice up some of the current cooking shows. The legalization of cannibalism is what our modern world needs to turn itself around.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The common idea behind using cannibalism to end world hunger is that we can kill half the people in the world and feed them to the other half. I disagree with that. Humans can live without their pinkey fingers, appendixes, and tonsils. This amounts to more than four hundred grams of useable meat per person. If the entire world donated those body parts, we would have 2, 400, 000, 000, 000 grams of meat or 2, 400, 000 metric tons or 3, 779, 250 cows worth of meat. These figures do not include the number of people who die and who would be edible. This, combined with the other foods currently available would help feed all the hungry people of the world. By legalizing and encouraging organized cannibalism we can help hungry and malnourished people everywhere.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  If cannibalism is legalized the world will be much better behaved. I do not think that the majority of criminals would commit crimes if they knew that their appendages would end up in the supermarket if they were caught. This would also apply to schools. Detentions do not work, but I think that if you break a rule you will have to give a limb to be eaten. If you are late five times, it is a toe. If you skip an English class, the punishment is a pound of flesh. The Young Offenders Act should also be altered. The punishment for young offenders would just be less than the punishment for adults. My improved correctional system would completely significantly reduce crime from our streets.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Cannibalism would provide economically viable solutions to the problems of modern society. Today there is a large homeless problem. Some have suggested feeding half the homeless to the other half.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Clockwork Orange Essay -- essays papers

Clockwork Orange In all of my reading, I have come to the conclusion that Anthony Burgess is one of the greatest literary genius’s of the twentieth century. His masterpiece, A Clockwork Orange, is unrivaled in obvious depth, insight, and innovation. The novel is a work of such quality, such perfection, that it seems to be genuinely written by a literary demigod. The novel's main theme deals with free choice and spiritual freedom. More specifically, "[The ethical promise that 'A man who cannot choose ceases to be man'] can be taken as both the explicit and implicit themes of the novel" (Morgan 104). Anthony Burgess expresses his view that no matter how "good" one's actions are, unless one has free moral choice, he is spiritually damned. The novel revolves around one criminally minded teen, Alex, whose world consists of rape, murder, and ruthless violence. Alex is eventually setup by his "droogs" (friends) and is arrested and jailed. After some time in jail, Alex is placed in a new rehabilitating program that uses electro-shock therapy, new medicines, and exposure to violent film. The program breaks all that Alex holds dear and builds him up with a new artificial conscience. This part of the novel "presents the reader with a new, reformed Alex, an Alex without free will or freedom of choice, an Alex who has become a victim" Burgess considers this lack of freedom to be spiritually murderous and terribly wrong. Burgess knows that it is better to choose to be evil, than to be forced to be good. Alex is tormented by his new state of oppression. He is incapable of making any choice; he must always do what is good. Alex is then taken under the wing of a writer who is fighting the oppressive government. The writer... ...a way that appears to distance it. Stanley: If this occurs it may be because the story both in the novel and the film is told by Alex, and everything that happens is seen through his eyes. Since he has his own rather special way of seeing what he does, this may have some effect in distancing the violence. Some people have asserted that this made the violence attractive. I think this view is totally incorrect. Bibliography: Coale, Samuel, Anthony Burgess (1981); Mathews, Richard, The Clockwork Universe of Anthony Burgess (1978). Kagan, Norman, The Cinema of Stanley Kubrick (1989); Nelson, Thomas Allan, Kubrick: Inside A Film Artist's Maze (1982); Phillips, Gene, Stanley Kubrick: A Film Odyssey (1975); Walker, Alexander, Stanley Kubrick Directs, rev. ed. (1972). English to Russian Dictionary (1996). â€Å"A Clockwork Orange† (1963); Burgess, Anthony

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

We Are Made of Star Stuff

We are â€Å"star stuff†. Discuss in detail our connections to the stars as established by modern astronomy. Modern astronomy has allowed us to understand how the universe functions and also provides the answers to some of the big questions. Questions like the origin of the universe and origin of life itself. It tells us that stars are the cosmic furnaces where all most all the building blocks of life and planets were synthesized. Lighter, basic and abundant elements like hydrogen and helium were formed during the Big Bang.During Big Bang, space expansion cooled the early energy dominated universe and a lot of energy transformed into matter. These basic elements were then able to create the early stars and also the stars of today. Inside of these stars lighter elements fused to release large quantities of energy and in the process of doing that converted hydrogen and helium into heavier elementary particles. Such elements would be deposited in the core of the star and are spew ed out into surrounding interstellar space when the star dies an explosive death.These newly synthesized heavy elements are essential for life to begin and evolve. 1 Hydrogen, helium and a little bit of lithium were made in the Big Bang. Hydrogen, the most abundant element accounted for around 75% of the matter, followed by helium at 25%. 2 Large quantity of these primordial gas formed clouds and such clouds were then condensed by local gravity to form the very first stars that lit up the dark skies of early universe. 3 As the baby stars contracted, temperature in the core rose to extreme level triggering nuclear fusion/hydrogen fusion.Nuclear fusion is a process in which two or more atoms fuse to synthesize heavier atom and this process of fusing releases large quantities of energy. 4 All the ingredients/elements needed to make the earth and all life forms on earth were created in the cores of stars. 5 These ingredients are then released out of the core of star into the surrounding when the giant star dies an explosive death known as the supernovae. This phenomenon occurs only to stars that are very big. Elements of up to iron can be made in a star and heavier than iron elements are produced in the supernovae. At least six of these essential elements compose life on earth and they are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorous. 8 Almost all life forms on earth are carbon based. This applies to the smallest living organisms (with exception of the new Inner core of a star7 discovery of arsenic based bacteria) to the biggest – the blue whale and all the living plants. They all have the same basic building blocks in their DNA. 9 Those building blocks are the essential elements.All of the rocky and metallic materials that made up our planet, the iron that runs in our blood, the calcium in our teeth and bones10, oxygen atoms that form water after combining with hydrogen, and, nitrogen and oxygen atoms that make up most of the atmosphere of earth are all products of stars billions of years ago. 11 As you can see in the picture above all of the heavier elements (above H and He) and including helium are made by the stars. The elements shown on the cross-section of the picture form heavier elements, they make up all the elements we discovered so far; the elements on the periodic table.Stars begin its life mostly made out of hydrogen and helium. The breakdown of hydrogen and helium in our sun is seventy percent and twenty eight when it started its life. 12 The building of heavier elements begins with hydrogen. Hydrogen is taken four at a time to form a single atom of helium. This process goes on for ninety percent of a stars’ life. When a star runs out of hydrogen, it starts fusing helium atoms to stay alive (producing energy to fight its own immense gravity from causing itself to collapse). Three atoms of helium are fused in the process of nuclear fusion to form an atom of carbon.As the process of fusing moves to n ext heavier atoms the duration of fusion process of newer atom becomes a lot shorter because for fusing atoms higher than hydrogen the number of available atoms for fusing is far fewer than the number atoms available when the star was fusing hydrogen for example. Next in line is oxygen. Adding one more helium to the carbon makes oxygen. Nitrogen is also made in the stars. 12 Without oxygen life as we know cannot survive. This process goes onto making silicon and iron. Nuclear fusion stops at iron because temperatures in star don’t reach high enough to fuse iron.So how do the elements heavier than iron form? The answer to this question lies in the size of the star. Only big stars (much bigger that our sun) are capable of producing a supernovae. Only such a catastrophic explosion can break the boundary set by iron and produce heavier atoms to fill the rest of the periodic table of elements. From the dusts and particles leftover of dead stars combined together to form asteroids and comets. Asteroids clumped together can form planet core. So life on earth basically began with the basic material that was available.These material/large molecules essential for the formation of living cells are proteins, carbohydrates (sugar), fats, and nucleic acids. It’s been found that meteorites contains essential stuff like amino acids (proteins made of amino acid), sugars, fatty acids (building block of fats), and bases for nucleic acids. For instance, the Murchison meteorite that crashed in Australia in 1969 is found to contain chains of fatty acids, different types of sugars, all five nucleic acid bases, and more than 70 kinds of amino acids (life forms use only 20 amino acids). 3 â€Å"We are star stuff â€Å"in the unforgettable words of Dr. Carl Sagan. The atoms that made up our bodies are created in the innards of stars that died many aeons ago. The planet we live on is made up materials like iron, silicon and carbon, etc are all forged in the natureâ€℠¢s grandest factory we know as stars. The air we breathe to stay alive is a product of stars. Stars also nourish life. The sun ray helps plants with photosynthesis; helps them break down carbon dioxide into organic compounds (sugars). Plants are a major source of food for humans and other creatures.Over the past few centuries (mainly 1900-2000) astronomy has made many eye opening discoveries; about the origin of the whole universe, our fate, and that we human are not the centre of the universe. It encourages humility in us and makes us better understand our connections the cosmos. References 1. Carl Sagan (No Date). Cosmos-We are Star Stuff Available: http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=0UR2L_4ic6Y&feature=related 2. Lawrence Krauss (3-27-2009). Life, the Universe and Nothing lecture Available: http://www. youtube. com/watch? =rdvWrI_oQjY [2011-04-04] video start at 51:11-52:16minutes 3. Dr. Tony Phillips (7-18-2000). X-ray Star Stuff [online] Available: http://science. nasa. gov/sc ience-news/science-at-nasa/2000/ast18jul_1m/ [2011-04-04] 4. Wikipedia-Nuclear Fusion (no date). [online] Available: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Nuclear_fusion [2011-04-04] 5. Sam Neill (presenter) (no date). Space with Sam Neill Available: http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=0zU1F6liZKo [2011-04-04] 6. =3 7. Mike S (12-7-2010). Science & Religion #8: We are all made of stars online] Available: http://www. wheatandtares. org/2010/12/07/science-religion-8-we-are-all-made-of-stars/ [2011-04-04] 8. Jason Palmer (12-2-2010). Arsenic-loving bacteria may help in hunt for alien life [online] Available: http://www. bbc. co. uk/news/science-environment-11886943 [2011-04-04] 9. Dan Solomon (12-2-2010). NASA Announces Arsenic Based Life Forms- But Are They Going To Kill Us? [online] Available: http://www. asylum. com/2010/12/02/nasa-announcement-aliens-arsenic/ [2011-04-04] 10. Korintherne (7-7-2006).Reasons & Facts: Cosmic Connection [online] Available: http://curezone. com/blogs/fm. asp? i =982845 [2011-04-04] 11. Dayanara (MA) (No Date). We are star stuff†¦ [online] Available: http://www. free-daily-motivational-self-improvement. com/we-are-star-stuff. html [2011-04-04] 12. Neil Tyson (presenter) (No Date). Elements: Forged in Stars Available: http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=uKqvjEE0wFg [2011-04-04] 13. Leslie Mullen (9-5-2005). Building Life from Star-Stuff [online] Available: http://www. astrobio. net/exclusive/1702/building-life-from-star-stuff [2011

Monday, September 16, 2019

Kingship in Macbeth

Throughout the play we see many of Shakespeare's ideas on the topic and theme of kingship but also what he thought the qualities a man should have to rule his country Macbeth is a play about power and about how the characters in the play handle it and use it. These characters are judged as leaders by their personalities, relationships with their subjects and their attitude towards the country. The characters Duncan, Macbeth, Malcolm and Edward all represent their own brand of kingship and as the play progresses we see the faults in each of these. The first to represent kingship in the play is Duncan. He is loved by his subjects and this love is well deserved and Duncan may be considered the most generous and loved king but that does not mean he is infallible. He is a good king has two sons and cares for Scotland. He is described as a sainted king by Macduff in Act 4 scene 3. Duncan places a lot of trust upon his soldiers and they are very loyal as we see in the bleeding captain fighting against mercenaries and Macbeth says himself his loyalty and service to Duncan is sufficient for his reward and also says †he hath honoured him of late† and the essence of Duncan's good nature creates doubts in Macbeth with regards to the murder and Lady Macbeth has also experienced this kindness, a large diamond received for been a good hostess. We see Duncan is decisive when it comes to the matter of traitors as the thane of Cawdor is executed swiftly following his deception from Duncan's ranks. We also see a definite flaw in his nature as he is naive and overly trusting, this is evident when he says † there is no art to find the minds construction in the face † and his ability to sense the deception and treason of the thane of Cawdor and Macbeth shows a lot about his short comings in dealing with certain aspects of his rule which at the time the play was set it was a very important ability to have as a king and his misplaced trust is seen in his haste to reward Macbeth with his new title of Cawdor. In act 4 scene 3 Malcolm lists of the traits of a good king including justice, verity, temperance, stableness, bounty, perseverance, mercy, lowliness, devotion, patience, courage and fortitude and Macduff in response says a king without any of the following does not deserve to live. Also in this scene we see Malcolm testing MacDuff's loyalty saying he is worse than Macbeth, even though it's not very ensuring that his believable lying and a quickness to flee following his father's murder shows fear but it does show he is learning from the mistakes of his father which is a subtlety in the play as to what kind of king he would be. On a more evident note we do see he does know the characteristics of a king and already has loyalty from his subjects which shows a much more stable rule but is questionable if his accession to the throne was smooth and he will remain reliant on his nobles as I father once was. The main issue of the play regarding kingship regards the rule of Macbeth which gives a scenario of the latent potential for evil in kingship. It is clear Macbeths only interest is in his own agenda and plans which seriously contrasts with the list read out by Malcolm in the scene previously mentioned. Macbeth's unstable rule is only maintained by resorting only to murder and terror against his subject and Macbeths use of these tools is mainly caused by hi deep rooted insecurity. This shows kingship has the potential for good and for evil . In the time of Shakespeare the King was believed to be an agent of God and God himself spoke through the king and as Macbeth is not rightfully king his control disturbs the natural order of nature and the earth becomes †feverous† showing the connection between kingship, nature, and all things balanced is to Shakespeare and the majority of his people at the time believed was real. The killing of Duncan to obtain the crown was also described as †unsanctified† due to Duncan being instilled with †divine right† which raises the issue that Macbeths crime is not only unjustly but unholy and a crime against God himself. Macbeth being aware of this prior to the murder he said he would †jump the life to come† meaning he is damned. These thought of eternal damnation weighs heavily in Macbeth's corrupted mind and is a catalyst for his declining unpopularity as the king and is described as a tyrant, hell-kite, usurper, butcher and as devilish which also agrees with the religious side of his kingship. Coming up to the end of Macbeths reign we see he has alienated and abandoned his wife, ordered the killing of innocent women and children and his best friend and has lost the loyalty of all his Thanes and now completely relies on occult prophesies which were completely still led to the demise of the once ambitious soldier, Macbeth. Addressing the character of Edward even though he doesn't show up on stage at all he is established as Macbeths opposite and contrasting sharply in regards to the religious aspect of the play, the doctor says people are healed by his †holy touch† , †solicits heaven† and is †full of grace†. The lord in act 3 scene 6 says he is both †pious† and †holy† his †white magic† runs in opposition to the witches black magic. Edward believes the heart of Scotland can be cured by pray but sends 10'000 men to assist Malcolm and MacDuff showing diplomacy and strategy. Shakespeare contrasts the various modes of kingship in the play, a combination of political manoeuvring, religious and spiritual believe and the kingly graces as defined and appreciated by loyal subjects and the optimistic conclusion that those not in possession of their worth will not be accepted as kings and throughout the play we see the that the countries suffering or prosperity is a direct reflection of the moral of its king.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Cross Dressing

Cross dressing is considered one of society’s abnormal ideas because of stereotypical gender roles. Stereotypical gender roles are stated as, biological females are feminine and biological males are masculine. Cross dressing does not represent the gender specific roles; in which men and women are suppose to follow. The idea of men and women acting and dressing like their opposite sex is unacceptable to the reality that they face. The movie The Bird Cage supports the idea that society’s stereotypical views on cross dressing remains unchanged. Society is not understanding of what is considered different from the normal. The stereotype that men are masculine and women are feminine is not the reality of gender versus sex. In â€Å"Sexual Mythologies† by Brian Pronger, he states that â€Å"Sex is a physiological distinction that is drawn between male and female, whereas gender is a cultural distinction that divides power between men and women. † (226) This represents the misconception that men are masculine and women are feminine. In reality gender is developed by cultural influence, and sex is genetic. In the movie The Bird Cage, Albert is born a male, but chooses to become feminine, therefore suggesting that men do not have to be masculine just because genetics say so. Cross dressing is defined as men who dress feminine and women who dress masculine, although society reacts more to men dressing as women as opposed to women dressing as men. Women dressing as men can be considered a â€Å"tomboy† which is common in society, whereas men dressing as women would be considered â€Å"homosexual or transsexual. † Why is it that women can wear men’s clothing, but men cannot wear women’s clothing? Society sees dresses as a representation of femininity and men are suppose to be masculine, and therefore men cannot wear dresses. Although pants are originally worn only by men, but because of changes in time; pants are considered unisexual. For instance, a woman walking down the street in pants; people probably do not even notice that she is wearing pants. But if a man walks down the street in a dress, people’s eyes will turn and they will begin whispering. Why should a man be looked at any differently in comparison to any woman? In the movie The Bird Cage, the society of South Beach is not a stereotypical norm. There are many homosexual and cross dressers within the city, and it is not considered abnormal. Armand and Albert are proud owners of a club that presents a nightly drag show. Their son, Val, is engaged to Senator Keeley’s daughter, Barbara. Val wants both families to meet, but the Keeley family does not know that Val’s parents are homosexual and run a drag show. Senator Keeley is a conservative man, and morally does not support homosexuals. Senator Keeley represents the stereotypical views of society. Armand makes a good point about how society feels about homosexuals and cross dressers. â€Å"Albert, these people are right-wing conservatives. They don’t care if you’re a pig, they just care if you’re a fag! † This quote represents the views of society about homosexual people or cross dressers. Armand pretends to be a straight man by showing how masculine he is by saying â€Å"Al, you old son of a bitch! How ya doin’? How do you feel about that call today? I mean the Dolphins! Fourth-and-three play on their 30 yard line with only 34 seconds to go! †¦ This shows that stereotypically men are suppose to be masculine and a sport that represents masculinity is football. Society has remained unchanged in their views about cross dressing because they choose to see and believe only what they want to see and hear. Why is it that a woman can wear pants? Back in the 19th century women were not allowed anything else except a dress. Society can accept th is change because of the influence of time and the boldness of women. In The Bird Cage, Louise Keeley (the senator’s wife) makes a great example of how society only perceives what it wants to perceive. Why, it looks like young men playing leapfrog!†¦ Is it Greek? † In reality Louise Keeley is look at a piece of china with pornographic pictures of young men. Louise Keeley does not see what is really there because she blinds herself in order to shield herself from what is considered immoral and in a sense horrible. Society also tries to hide and shield themselves from situations that they do not like, such as homosexuals, homeless people, cross dressers, etc. Just because society wants to blind itself, does not mean that these people do not exist. Cross dressing is viewed as wrong in the eyes of a stereotypical society. Biological men and women are supposed to be masculine and feminine respectively. Cross dressing is not considered a norm in society. This idea is seen through the movie The Bird Cage. In reality sex does not determine gender, as represented by Brian Pronger in â€Å"Sexual Mythologies. † Therefore sex cannot determine gender, but society will always view what it wants to see. Unless society can learn to accept people for who they are and what they wear, then we will have a truly have a society where there are no stereotypes.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Education as a Social Institution Essay

At some point in time everyone is a recipient of some type of education. This can take the form of traditional schooling, home schooling, or mentoring by an individual. Formal schooling, within industrialized nations, typically encompasses one third of an individual’s life. This is one of the reasons sociologists have examined education as it relates to various social perspectives. This paper will explore education in regards to the Functionalist, Conflict, and Interactionist perspectives/views. (Perspective and views will be used interchangeably throughout this paper). â€Å"Two theories are considered in accounting for the increased schooling required for employment in advanced industrial society: (a) a technical-function theory, stating that educational requirements reflect the demands for greater skills on the job due to technological change; and (b) a conflict theory, stating that employment requirements reflect the efforts of competing status groups to monopolise or dominate jobs by imposing their cultural standards on the selection process† (Collins, 1971). Applying the Functionalist Theory Functionalist theory is explained by asserting that â€Å"societies function like biological systems in that they have differentiated parts that function together to ensure the smooth operation and survival of the organism as a whole† (Morrow, Torres, 1995). It is important to note that within the functionalist theory there are three different functions. â€Å"Manifest functions of institutions are open, stated, conscious functions. They involve the intended, recognized consequences of an aspect of society, such as the university’s role in certifying academic competence and excellence† (Schaefer, 2009). An example of this would be the core classes that are available to students in elementary school. Such as math, history, English, etc. While some schools, dependent on them being private or public institutions, offer various additional classes, they all predominately educate their students in core capabilities. Latent functions are those functions that â€Å"are unconscious or unintended functions that may reflect hidden purposes of an institution. One latent function of universities is to hold down unemployment. Another is to serve as a meeting ground for people seeking marital partners† (Schaefer, 2009). The third sub-function is dysfunction. In the military, dysfunction is referred to as the ten-percent. This means that for every group, unit, etc there will be ten percent of the population that does not conform to the military way of life. More simply, this can be expressed as â€Å"an element or process of a society that may actually disrupt the social system or reduce its stability† (Schaefer, 2009). Today’s educational system teaches students to become integral parts of society. Through public education, teachers are able to influence tomorrow’s workforce in societal norms, ensuring they understand how to become contributors to their society’s stability. An example of the contribution to society the education system provides is: parents that take on extra jobs to fund their child’s education. This provides revenue for the immediate family, while funding and teaching the child the importance of hard work, devotion, and self sacrifice (societal norms). This can be compared to the example in the text about Hindu’s and their devotion to cows. Just as the Hindu understand the benefit the benefits that they receive by ensuring their cows remain available to cultivate and fertilize their agricultural crops, most parents apply the same concept to educating their children. Understanding the benefits an education will provide not only their immediate family, but also their children and the community as a whole. Applying the Conflict Theory The basis of this theory is that conflict theorists assume â€Å"that social behavior is best understood in terms of tension between groups over power of the allocation of resources, including housing, money, access to services, and political representation† (Schaefer, 2009). As with the functionalist perspective, conflict theory embraces various viewpoints. These include: the Marxist view, an African American view, and the feminist view. These views while differing slightly, each embrace the concern with inequality in society, while focusing on social change and the redistribution of resources. â€Å"The main dynamic of rising educational requirements in the United States has been primarily the expansion of mobility opportunities through the school system, rather than autonomous changes in the structure of employment. It is argued that the effort to build a comprehensive theory of stratification is best advanced by viewing those effects of technological change on educational requirements that are substantiated within the basic context of a conflict theory of stratification† (Collins, 1971). An example of this theory put to use is the April, 2001 strike conducted by Hawaii’s educators. Due to an inability of the state government and the union representatives to come to an understanding approximately 15,000 school teachers, from kindergarten to university, participated in the strike, effectively bringing Hawaii’s education system to a halt. This example while relating to the conflict theory is directly related to the Marxist view. â€Å"Conflict theorists are interested in how society’s institutions―including the family, government, religion, education, and the media―may help to maintain the privileges of some groups and keep others in a subservient position† (Schaefer, 2009). The individual view from this perspective identifies how people are shaped by power, coercion and authority. Specifically, those universities that are considered to be elite provide their students with enhanced career opportunities. â€Å"While there are various criteria by which particular colleges and universities can be placed in this academic hierarchy, the most significant one sociologically is their relationship to the class structure of society. This relationship is understood in terms of the social and economic attainments of their graduates. Elite colleges and universities, therefore, are those whose alumni enjoy disproportionate access to high-status occupations, as well as to other forms of economic and cultural privilege; they are gateways to elite membership in society† (Farnum, 1997). Applying the Interactionist Theory The first two perspectives have dealt with macrosociology or society as a whole. The interactionist perspective looks at portions of society in a microsociological way. This theory can be explained as â€Å"theorists who take the interactionist perspective generalize about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole† (Schaefer, 2009). Some of the data compiled by interactionist sociologists studying the educational field include: student views/goals in relation to their grade point averages, effectiveness of school programs, and effectiveness of educator abilities. As with functionalist and conflict perspectives, the interactionist perspective incorporates additional concepts. These include symbols, nonverbal communication and face-to-face interaction. â€Å"Symbolic interactionism focuses on the role of language and symbols in the (interpretive) processes of meaning making. Young people are highly social beings deeply engaged in the processes of learning how to act within the culture of which they are a part. This cultural learning is both shaped and reflected by their use of language, dress, music and clothing, for example† (Domine, 2007). Within the education system, interactionists poll students and teachers alike, in order to determine what effect objects, actions, etc have on the subjects. This evaluation enables the sociologists to better understand everyday behaviors and relate them into quantitative or qualitative data to track social patterns. Society’s Views Regardless of your favored perspective, each of these views offers pros and cons, dependent on your topic of study. In the educational realm, the functionalist, conflict and interactionist views provide the sociologist a means to determining their ends. â€Å"Whatever the purpose of sociologists’ work, their research will always be guided by their theoretical viewpoints. For example, sociologist Elijah Anderson embraces both the interactionist perspective and the groundbreaking work of W.E.B. DuBois† (Schaefer, 2009). The works of these individuals and countless others have helped to define and more importantly to understand the how and why educational systems operate the way they do and how they can be improved. Conclusion Three distinct theoretical perspectives have been discussed throughout this paper. The overall tone to take away from the research conducted here is that regardless of the favored view, practitioners must maintain an open mind and be able to incorporate portions or be able to integrate separate perspectives into their work. When considering or examining the education field, the functionalist, conflict and interactionist views all lend themselves to providing quality feedback on the â€Å"snapshot in time† taken by the researcher, regardless of topic. This can come in the form of determining the effects of school lunches on the productivity of students to the quality of programs in relation to independent funding received by an institution. â€Å"A sociologist’s theoretical orientation influences his or her approach to a research problem in important ways―including the choice of what to study, how to study it, and what questions to pose† (Schaefer, 2009).