Thursday, January 9, 2020

Charles Of The I Vs. Charles The II - 1255 Words

Judmir Bullari Brit.Lit Research Paper 3/23/15 Charles the I vs. Charles the II England has gone through many kings and leaders, some better than others obviously, for example when you compare Charles the first to his son who succeeded him years after his rule Charles the second. One key difference between the two is that Charles reign ended due to his execution, and his son was able to rule till he saw his deathbed, the reasons why are quite simple. The Stuart monarchs of England restored peace and order to England after the civil wars that led to the execution of King Charles 1 in 1649, wars that continued even after the king was dead. The people of England were done with war, worried of revolutionaries and radicals, were ready to settle down, make money, and enjoy life. In 1660, the people brought back the son of King Charles the first from his exile in France, crowned him King Charles the II, and hailed him as their savior. To warn angry revolutionaries they dug up the corpse of Oliver Cromwell and cut his head off, he had ruled England between Charles 1 and Charles II. The Monarchy was restored without shedding a drop of blood in warfare. Charles was the second son of King James the VI of Scotland. After his father inherited the English throne, Charles moved to England and spent most of the rest of his life there. He became heir to English, Irish, and also the Scottish thrones after the death of his older brother Henry Frederick. Charles was laterShow MoreRelatedOrgan Transplantation : Medical Advancements1104 Words   |  5 Pagesconsists of, I will now go into the different ways organs are distributed and then different methods of how to increase organ donations. 1. Organ distribution a. How to fairly divide limited resources is the issue b. Distributive justice theory = â€Å"there is not one â€Å"right† way to distribute organs, but rather many ways a person could justify giving an organ to one particular individual over someone else† (Ethics of Organ Transplantation, 2004, p. 15) i. â€Å"To each person an equal share ii. To eachRead MoreMonarchy Is The Oldest Form Of Government1657 Words   |  7 Pages(1327) and end with Charles the I from the House of Stuarts (1625) with added attention to the time period of 1299-1485 during the time of War of the Roses. Studying English history in accordance with Shakespeare’s plays gives the reader a better understanding of the time period the play was written and helps the reader understand what shaped Shakespeare’s story. Edward III from the house of Plantagenet ascended to the throne in 1327 at the age of 14. He is the son of Edward the II and Isabella ofRead MoreNotes On : Reviving Religion976 Words   |  4 PagesGreat Awakening started in the 1800s. This caused lots of changes such as moving towards abolishing as well as moving towards women rights i) Baptists and Methodist stressed a lot about emotionalism ii) Peter Cartwright was known as the traveling preachers iii) Charles Grandison Finney was one of the greatest preachers during the 2nd awakening 2) Denominational Diversity a) Since there were so many people preaching in New YorkRead MoreHow Vietnam War Affected America1450 Words   |  6 Pagesindividuals involved in this modern practice and the financial and economic impact their success had on the Vietnam War. Well-trained snipers played a miniscule role from a United States perspective in World War II. The United States Marine Corps did establish two sniper training schools during World War II, one in California and one in North Carolina. However, these training camps were largely flying by the seat of their pants, no official training manuals or procedures existed at this time, not to mentionRead MoreThe Power to Declare War Essay1246 Words   |  5 Pageswhile Congress can do little if they have already given their approval. After the Vietnam War, in which Presidents Johnson and Nixon continued to wage despite a divided Congress[i]; they decided that the Constitution did not warrant the president to have the power to declare war, so they passed the War Powers Resolution[ii]. While the War Powers Act was meant to explicitly limit presidential war powers, it is largely ignored by the president, who holds the power to send troops into combat. AccordingRead MoreAnalysis Of Jan Hughes, Plaintiff Appellant V, Boston Scientific Corporation, Defendant Apellee1629 Words   |  7 PagesScientific. In this amended complaint, Count I for â€Å"Products Liability† contains the assertions that the product failed to contain sufficient warnings of dangers or risks which were familiar or in the light of reasonably available knowledge should have been known to Boston Scientific†. Along with this, the product also failed to contain sufficient instructions to communicate necessary information on the dangers associated with, and the safe use of the product. Count II of revised complaint for â€Å"Negligence†Read MoreThe Colonization Of The New World1068 Words   |  5 Pagesfor England eventually winning the power struggle in the New World. Queen Anne’s War, also called the War of Spanish succession, played an important role in the English domination of the New World. The war broke out after the death of Spanish king Charles II in late 1700. In May 1702, England declared war on Spain and France. The portion of this war fought in North America was primarily a proxy war fought between Indians allied with England and Indians allied with France and Spain. In the 1702 SiegeRead MoreEvolution Creationism2933 Words   |  12 PagesAcceptance of Creation is growing in spite of overwhelming evidence proving Evolution. I. Acceptance of Creation is growing in spite of overwhelming evidence proving Evolution There is no easy resolution for whats true and evolution or creationism. It is a complex topic with profound scientific, religious, educational, and criticism. How can a student or parent come to grips with this issue? Evolution vs. Creationism provides a badly needed, comprehensive, and balanced introduction to the manyRead More Charles Yale Harrison’s Generals Die in Bed vs Colin McDougall’s Execution1733 Words   |  7 PagesCharles Yale Harrison’s Generals Die in Bed vs Colin McDougall’s Execution As with any genre, all novels termed ‘war stories’ share certain elements in common. The place and time settings of the novels, obviously, take in at least some aspect of at least one war or conflict. The characters tend to either be soldiers or are at least immediately affected by the military. An ever present sense of doom with punctuated moments of peace is almost a standard of the war novel. Beyond theRead MoreNative Americans And The American Government Essay1373 Words   |  6 Pagestrying to buy land from the Native Americans and trying to civilize them by giving them white names and teaching them white education. Forget Columbus is a chapter within The Inconvenient Indian that talks about the fallacious history regarding Whites vs Indians. He thinks there is a lot of made up history and history not told, for American favor. The Vanishing American informs readers about the facts of what was going on in the 19th century regarding racism, killing Indians, and westward expansion

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Stem Cell Delivery in Regenerative Engineering and Medicine - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2046 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2019/06/19 Category Biology Essay Level High school Tags: Stem Cell Essay Did you like this example? Regenerate the Vascular Tissue Blood vessels composed of endothelial cells and mural cells play key roles in tissue regeneration and repair by serving as conduits to deliver oxygen and nutrients to injured and newly-formed tissues.[88] Many CVDs such as coronary artery disease (CAD) and peripheral vascular disease (PAD) are resulted from the loss of vascular supply leading to organ failure. Regeneration of blood vessels can be generally divided into two major aspects: the neovascularization in ischemic tissues, and repairing of injured blood vessels.[89] Insufficient neovascularization is the essential hurdle for treatment of ischemic diseases, especially coronary artery diseases (CADs), by regeneration of thick tissues (200 m) that cannot survival under nutrients diffusion supply alone. Delivery of endothelial cells (ECs) or related progenitor cells together with stem cells can effectively improve the neovascularization, which consequentially enhance the efficacy of stem cell therapy. For instance, a recent research reported by Zhang group encapsulated a combination of hiPSC-CMs, hiPSC-ECs, and hiPSC-derived smooth muscle cells (hiPSC-SMCs) in fibrinogen gel at ratio of 2:1:1 to fabricated human cardiac muscle patches (hCMPs) for MI treatment. Co-delivery of the hiPSC-ECs and hiPSC-SMCs with fibrinogen gel into the porcine model of MI leaded to angiogenesis factor-enriched exosome secretion that significantly improved CMs survival and maturation, and contributed to the engraftment and angiogenesis at periscar border zone, which impr oved functional recovery of myocardium as a consequence. Besides the co-delivery strategy, direct encapsulation of pro-survival peptides in biomaterials was also proved to improve angiogenesis (Figure 5).[90] Wu group conjugated bone morphogenetic protein-2 peptide analogue (BMP2), erythropoietin peptide analogue (EPO), and fibroblast growth factor-2 peptide analogue (FGF2) with collagen fibers (Col?— D?— Pep) via dendrimer linker to realize the slow release of the pro-survival factors to delivered BMMNCs. The peptide had similar biological effects as the full-length protein, but with improved stability, fewer side effects and better delivery. Due to the chemical conjugation, the pro-survival factors can be slowly released by degradation of the collagen hydrogel. The hydrogel delivery system improved the cell survival and retention. In vivo delivery of the BMMNCs with the Col?— D?— Pep hydrogel improved the blood perfusion in ischemic limb of both severe combined immune-deficient mice and immunocompetent mice. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Stem Cell Delivery in Regenerative Engineering and Medicine" essay for you Create order Besides the paracrine effect, ECs derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC, including ESCs and iPSCs) were reported to integrate with host tissue to from vascular structures.[91] The researchers from Yoon Group delivered the hPSC-ECs using a self-assembled peptide amphiphile conjugated with RGDS (PA-RGDS) nanomatrix gel into ischemic limb to reconstruct the vascular structure for CVDs treatment. The PA-RGDS molecule was consisted of a hydrophobic alkyl tail, and hydrophilic domain of cell adhesive ligand RGDS and biodegradable sequence of metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2). The RGD ligand promoted the adhesion and avoided anoikis of encapsulated hPSC-ECs in nanomatrix gel which is critical for cell survival during engraftment, while the MMP-2 site provided a controlled degradation of the gel which played key roles in cell integration with the host tissue.[92] Although the mechanism was not shown, the PA-RGDS nanomatrix preserved the cell viability from oxidative stress which is importa nt cytoprotection as discussed. Meanwhile, the nanomatrix gel could enhance the retention of delivered cells that were still detectable up to 21 weeks. After 10 months, the transplanted ECs integrated into host tissues which contribute to the neovascularization in ischemic areas. Additionally, providing the structural guidance such as micro-channels would further accelerate the neovascularization process.[80b, 93] Dysfunction of the narrowed arteries results in reduced blood supply to organs that will cause ischemic disease such as CAD, stroke and periphery artery disease (PAD). Current repairing strategy is bypass surgery using autologous grafts (e.g. patient vein) or synthetic polymer graft (e.g. Teflon). However, the availability of autologous grafts is patient-limited availability and the harvest process is invasive.[94] However, the usage of synthetic graft usually resulted in repeated revascularization procedures due to the acute and chronic occlusion caused by graft infection and other complication.[95] Recent development in biomaterials and cell therapy could shed light on the possible solution. For instance, Woo group manufactured the engineered vascular conduits (EVCs) using cell sheets from patient-derived smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and fibroblasts.[96] The EVCs was further perfused with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) for maturation. The artificial mature EVCs showe d native artery comparable structure and mechanical strength, which leaded to completely recovery of blood perfusion in ligated hindlimb of rats. Besides the cannular vascular grafts, stem cell patch was also shown to be useful in repairing of ateries. Mayer group fabricated a hybrid scaffold using an elastomeric polymer of poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB) and methacrylated gelatin (GelMa) hydrogel (Figure 6).[97] A fibrous elastic scaffold was firstly prepared with dry spinning of P4HB in random and aligned manner which had uniform and anisotropic mechanical properties, respectively. Then GelMa was introduced into the fibrous P4HB scaffold to provide a hospitable environment for cell growth. Cells encapsulated in the hybrid scaffold showed more uniform distribution compared to the cells directly seeded onto P4HB scaffold. In vivo delivery of MSCs and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) using the hybrid scaffold on sheep pulmonary artery enabled the tissue formation throughout the scaf fold and prevented the surface thrombosis. This was attributed to the compatible environment provided by the GelMa hydrogel encapsulation, as well as the mechanical support by P4HB fibrous scaffold under physiological pressure in vivo. Other potential strategies via decellularized vascular structures without pre-seeding of stem cells are also proved to be efficient to induce vascularization which is beyond the scope of this review.[98] Despite the achievements in preclinical studies, few clinical trials were carried involving biomaterials delivery system for stem cells therapy (Table 2).[99] Therefore, more work is required to further evaluate and translate the developed functional biomaterials to provide new options for cardiovascular regeneration to fulfill the bench-to-bedside approach. Biomaterials for Stem Cell Delivery in Neruoregeneration Damages to the brain, the spinal cord and the peripheral nerves due to traumatic injuries, stroke, tumor, infection or neurodegenerative diseases are often permanent and incapacitating, presenting tremendous burden on the patients, their families and society. The adult nervous system, especially the central nervous system (CNS), has limited capability to regenerate to establish the correct axonal and dendritic connections.[100] Instead, a cascade of events happen as a consequence of damages, including the production of glial scar, which represents a molecular and physical barrier to regeneration, leading to neuronal degeneration and cell death.[101] Current clinical treatments are designed to pharmacologically improve the disease symptoms in combination with rehabilitation activities to restore physical function to some extent; however, no therapies are yet available to fully restore lost functions or slow ongoing neurodegeneration following the injury or disease.[102] It has been re cognized that the failure of neurons to regenerate was not an intrinsic deficit of the neuron, but rather a characteristic feature of the damaged environment that either did not support or prevented regeneration.[101] Therefore, strategies aim to fully regenerate the damaged nerves should not only focus on supplying the cells lost due to injury or disease to re-establish the connections, but also improving the local environment to support regeneration and prevent further degeneration. Stem cells have great promise as a source for introducing new neurons or glial cells to the damaged nervous system. For instance, neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) can be isolated from the mammalian neonatal CNS,[103] or derived from pluripotent stem cells such as ESCs and iPSCs,[104] which can in turn be differentiated into neurons and glia cells of the nervous system when delivered to the damaged regions. In addition, NS/PCs can also modulate immune and inflammatory responses, leading to neuroprotective effect to the surrounding tissues.[105] Clinical trials of allogenic NS/PCs transplantation to patients with ALS,[106] stroke,[107] and Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD)[108] have found consistently favorable safety profile during early phase trials. Other cell types, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are also investigated by researchers preclinically[109] and clinically[110] for their ability to facilitate neuroregeneration via paracr ine actions of neural protection, plasticity, antiinflammation, and angiogenesis, rather than direct transdifferentiating into neural cells.[111] Advanced biomaterials can provide a structural platform to bridge the gap of damaged neural tissue, deliver stem cells to the site of injury, enable and augment the targeted delivery of therapeutic molecules, and help rebuild damaged circuits and repair damaged neuronal pathways.[102b, 112] In a 2016 meta-analysis of preclinical studies using NSPC transplantation for spinal cord injury treatment, it was found that scaffold use in NSPC transplantation effectively raise functional recovery comparing to scaffold-free cell suspension.[113] The ideal materials for neural regeneration should be biocompatible with low immunogenicity, mechano-compatible to provide structural support to the surrounding neural tissue, and encouraging stem cell survival, differentiation and integration.[102b, 114] In this section, we highlight some of our colleagues recent work of neuroregeneration in the brain, the spinal cord and the peripheral nerves (Table 3) that utilized advanced biomaterial-assisted ste m cell delivery strategies to regenerate neural tissues. Regenerate the Brain Tissues Stem or progenitor cell transplantation after brain damage due to ischemic stroke or traumatic injury was shown to promote neuro-regeneration in pre-clinical models.[115] Early-phase clinical studies to evaluate the intracerebral transplantation of allogenic human neural stem cells (NSCs)[107] and MSCs[116] have also demonstrated promising safety profiles in stroke patients. However, these studies are limited by poor survival of the transplant when administered as a suspended form into the damaged brain, most likely due to the ischemic and pro-inflammatory environment, the immunological attack and the abrupt withdrawal of growth factor and adhesive support.[114] To solve this problem, biomaterial scaffolds can serve as delivery vehicles for transplanted cells, facilitating neuronal outgrowth and connectivity between grafted and host cells. Moreover, the scaffolds can be modified to provide local and sustained delivery of proteins, and the surface can be topographically altered to for m alignment, coated with ligands or modified to possess a surface charge to promote attachment, growth and differentiation of neural stem cells.[102b] Some earlier works used porous biodegradable polymers such as polyglycolic acid (PGA) as cell-seeding scaffolds, which supported new brain tissue regeneration around the degenerating scaffold and formed a network of neurites with axonal regeneration.[117] However, the transplantation of cell seeded polymer scaffold requires invasive surgical procedures, which may cause further damage to the vulnerable brain tissue. Alternatively, hydrogels containing ECM proteins such as collagen, laminin and fibronectin could be injected with stem cells to allow minimally invasive cell delivery.[118] The ECM-based scaffolds were found to significantly improve cell survival rate comparing to cells in suspension by many groups.[119] However, the xenogeneic nature of ECM-based scaffolds and the potential immune response to the antigenic components of xenogeneic materials represent a critical barrier to the use of xenogeneic scaffolds in translational applications.[120] Synthetic ECM-derived peptides, s uch as laminin-derived IKVAV and fibronectin-derived RGD could be used to form ECM-memetic hydrogels by self-assembly[121] or incorporation with other biopolymer materials (e.g. hyaluronic acid[122] and alginate[123]) to allow effective delivery and differentiation of stem cells to the brain, without the use of xenogeneic materials. Engineering strategies can further encourage the migration, survival and differentiation of NS/PCs by promoting a stem cell niche-like environment that helps rebuild a functional neuronal network. As an example, the Segura group has engineered a series of hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogels with various peptide modifications.[122, 124] Their initial delivery of iPS-NPCs to the stroke cavity within the HA based matrix modified with RGD and MMP sensitive peptide promoted the differentiation of transplanted cells; however, the material did not significantly promote stem cell survival.[122a] To improve stem cell survival, the group utilized the Design of Experiments (DOE) methodology to optimize the concentrations of three ECM ligands (RGD, YIGSR, IKVAV) in vitro for the survival and differentiation of NPCs by determining the individual and combinatorial effects of each factor on cell activity.[124] Further DOE optimization and modification was carried out combining mechanical, biochemi cal and trophic factors, and a later animal study using the systematically optimized HA hydrogel resulted in selective control of human neural stem cell survival and differentiation after transplantation in the stroke brain[122b] (Figure 7A). Moreover, the HA hydrogel can be tracked in vivo with MRI, enabling non-invasive tracking for material distribution and degradation. Recent work from the same group also focuses on cell-free approach of brain tissue regeneration after stroke by promoting vascularization and reducing inflammation, which is beyond the scope of this review.[125]

Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Sensitive periods - 2107 Words

Assignment 2: Define the term sensitive periods and link them appropriately to the child’s first stage of development. Explain how you would support these sensitive periods during this first crucial stage. Dr. Maria Montessori, basing on her scientific child observation, concluded that children learn and adjust to their surroundings on their own and by the means of inner powers (Montessori, 1966) they possess at birth: the Absorbent Mind (Montessori, 2007a), human tendencies (Montessori, 1966) and sensitive periods (Montessori, 1966). Essential skills acquisition and adjustment occurs in the first six years of life and requires a great deal of freedom, a mindful assistance of an adult and a favorable environment (Montessori,†¦show more content†¦This is a period of a â€Å"constructive perfectionment†(Montessori, 2007b, p153) through an active experience. Children look for purposeful activities, that will allow them to explore the environment and master their skills. Thus at this time the organs and mental abilities, that were firstly developed separately, are coming to the cohesion. Memory starts to appear, taking place of the mneme (Montessori, 2007a), where impressi ons from the first threeShow MoreRelatedSensitive Period to Order - Montessori1167 Words   |  5 Pagesthe child’s sensitive period for order. I will explain how it is catered for in the classroom, referring to materials and activities. Sensitive Periods The Sensitive Periods are the best times for a child to learn a specific skill and are critical to the child’s self development. The child has this inner urge to undertake the task in order to live. Although, once this period passes it is possible for the child to learn the new skill but with much more difficulty. A sensitive period that is preventedRead MoreMontessori - What Are the Six Sensitive Periods?1777 Words   |  8 PagesWhat are the 6 sensitive periods? Write 7 to 8 lines on each of them? The Sensitive Periods in a child’s life was Dr. Maria Montessori’s greatest discovery. Though it was first discovered by a Dutch Scientist, Hugo de Vries, it was on animals, but Dr. Maria Montessori found the existence of this period in children too. The term â€Å"Sensitive Period† is used for a specific period of a child’s mental growth, during which the different sensibilities enable him to choose from a complex environment whatRead MoreSensitive Periods1496 Words   |  6 PagesSensitive Periods Define the term sensitive periods Sensitive periods are a period in a child’s life where they are obsessed with certain aspects of learning without any particular reason. This period is an optimum time for development and children can really develop specific abilities and skills. When children are in their sensitive periods and working with any activity, they will not show any signs of fatigue and will repeat the activity a number of times. These periods last for a certainRead MoreDefine the Term Sensitive Periods and Link Them Appropriately to the Child’s First Stage of Development2382 Words   |  10 PagesFULL below: Define the term sensitive periods and link them appropriately to the child’s first stage of development. Explain how you would support these sensitive periods during this first crucial stage.- Briefly outline the stages of growth (planes of development). -Define the term sensitive periods and give full details of the six main periods, together with examples to show your understanding. -Explain why it is important to support and facilitate these periods during the child’s first stageRead MoreThe influence of the Absorbent Mind, and the Sensitive Periods on the childs development of movement, language and social skills.1448 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction In this essay I will define the Absorbent Mind and the Sensitive period and illustrate the influence of these periods on the child s development of movement, language and social skills. A child in his absorbent mind develops his movement, his language and social skills by soaking knowledge. He takes steps in different sensitive period and repeats his movements, words or social skill actions to improve and to perfect his movement, language and social skills. The Absorbent Mind: DrRead MoreSensitive Periods During The Caterpillar Of The Prosthesis Butterfly Essay2080 Words   |  9 PagesSENSITIVE PERIODS Introduction: ‘Sensitive periods’ is a term developed by the Dutch geneticist Hugo de Vries and later used by the Italian educator Maria Montessori. Montessori cites DeVries’ example of a Sensitive Period in the caterpillar of the Prosthesis butterfly. The caterpillar must feed on very tender leaves, and yet the butterfly lays its eggs in the most hidden fork of the branch, near the trunk of the tree. Who will show the little caterpillars hidden there, the moment they leave theRead MoreEssay on Sensitive Periods in Developement1258 Words   |  6 PagesSensitive Periods in Developement The child does not grow uniformly and homogeneously like a crystal or a carrot, but by stages or phases, which succeed one another and which, differ from one another. For proper growth and development it is necessary that the potentialities for developing human relationships with which the infant is born be exposed to the organizing influences of another human being. Accumulating evidence indicates that there exist critical developmental periods during whichRead MoreDefine the Term Sensitive Periods and Link Them Appropriately to the Child’s First Stage of Development. Explain How You Would Support These Sensitive Periods During This First Crucial Stage.2109 Words   |  9 PagesDefine the term sensitive periods and link them appropriately to the child’s first stage of development. Explain how you would support these sensitive periods during this first crucial stage. In this essay I will define the term sensitive periods linking it with stage of development, I will also outline the importance of these periods , the consequences of not recognising it, and finally how we can support children in this crucial time. A sensitive periods refers to a special sensibilityRead MoreIn South Africa, adolescence is a sensitive period, and not a critical period, for identity1600 Words   |  7 PagesSouth Africa, adolescence is a sensitive period, and not a critical period, for identity development as it is â€Å"a period during which normal development is most sensitive to abnormal environmental conditions† (Bruer, 2001). When looking at South Africa particularly, the abnormal environmental conditions would be apartheid, and one will see its profound effects on identity development. Adolescence is a sensitive period rather than a critical period as a critical period focuses on a system that â€Å"requiresRead MoreSensitive Periods in Early Development Essay examples1346 Words   |  6 PagesSensitive Periods in Early Development From the moment of conception to the moment we are born and grow into adulthood, the timing of even the first beginning of our life journey is crucial. Even the timing of fertilization can be too soon or too late in which will cause the organism to be destroyed. (The Development of Children, 2nd ed). The mother carrying a baby has a responsibility to ensure enough nutrition is supplied for the rapid growth of the organism. However

Monday, December 16, 2019

Law Revision Free Essays

She care for her own self interest and has not bring a new product opportunity to FAA Case: Re Come 191 1 Fact: A father had been assisted in his business by his second son. After the father’s death, the mother transferred the business assets to that second son. After her death, the elder son sought the transfer Of those assets back into her estate, saying that in the absence of her having taken independent advice, the younger son’s position brought an implication of undue influence. We will write a custom essay sample on Law Revision or any similar topic only for you Order Now Director’s fiduciary duties are owed only to the company, not to the individual share holders. Case: Percival v Wright 1902 Facts: Percival wished to sell his shares in the company and wrote to the company secretary asking if he knew f anyone willing to buy. After negotiations, the chairman of the board of directors arranged the purchase of 253 shares, 85 for himself and 84 for each of his fellow directors at a price based on Percival valuation of the shares. The transfers were approved by the board and the transactions completed. Soon afterwards, Percival discovered that prior to and during the negotiations for the sale of his shares, another person was negotiating with the board for the purchase of the whole company and was offering various prices for shares, all of which exceeded the price paid to Percival. Percival then brought n action against the directors asking for the sale of his shares to be set aside for non-disclosure. Held: The directors are not trustee for the individual shareholders and may purchase their shares without disclosing that they are negotiating for the sale of the entire company. Fruity has not informed to the board of FAA when she set up a company called Cure Life Ltd (CLC) and become majority shareholder. Case: The board of trustees of the Saba Foundation Or’s v Dates Seed chick bin Seed Mohamed nor [1 999] ‘A fiduciary is someone who has undertake to act for or on behalf of another in a particular tater in circumstances which give rise to a relationship of trust and confidence. The distinguishing obligation of a fiduciary is the obligation of loyalty. The principal is entitled to the single minded loyalty of his fiduciary†¦ This core liability has several facts. A fiduciary must act in good faith; he must not make for his own benefit or the benefit of a third person without the informed consent Of his principal. This is not intended to be an exhaustive list, but it is sufficient to indicate the nature of fiduciary obligations.. They are the defining characteristics of the fiduciary†¦ E is not subject to fiduciary obligations because he is fiduciary; it is because he is subject to them that he is a fiduciary. ‘ The key fide carry obligations of the directors are To act Boniface in the interest of the company Directors are required to act Boniface for the benefit of the company as a whole. The Act also imposes similar duty on directors: SSL 32 (1) Case: Re Lee Barrens Ltd [1932] Facts: A dispute arose over the purchase by the company of pension policies for the benefit of employees and their spouses. It was claimed that the particular policy issued was a misuse of the directors’ power. Held: The judge set out a three part test for determining whether the directors were using their powers properly: (1) Was the transaction entered into in good faith? (2) Was the transaction reasonably incidental to the carrying on of the company’s business? (3) Was the transaction done for the benefit of the company and to promote its prosperity? 1) No (2) NO (3) Yes TO exercise their power under the company’s constitution for proper purpose Because directors are fiduciaries they can only exercise powers given to them for the purpose for which those powers were given and for no other purpose or which those powers were given and for no other purpose, and the exercise of a power for an improper purpose can be challenged even if the directors’ good faith is not in question To avoid conflict of interest and not to profit from their position In the situation, Fruity has proposed FAA enters into a contract with CLC to buy supplies of the organic fruit drink product for resale. The board agrees and as part of the contract Fruity negotiates with the board that she will be paid RUMOR,000 commission because she drew the board’s attention to this new product opportunity. The board of FAA did not know that Fruity is the majority shareholder of CLC. There is a conflict of interest between the two position Managing Director of Freshness Always Sad Bad and as the majority shareholder of CLC. Fruity also has set up the price for commission of RUMOR,OOH to draw attention towards the new product opportunity. Case: Aberdeen Railway co v Blaine Brose [1843-60] Facts: The railway company agreed to buy chairs from a partnership, Blaine Brose. Blaine, a member of the partnership was also a director of the company. When the partners tried to enforce the contract the company successfully claimed that the contract was avoidable owing to the director’s conflict of interest. Held: Lord Charwoman said: â€Å"His duty to the company imposed on him the obligation of obtaining these iron chairs at the lowest possible price. His personal interest would let him in an entirely opposite direction – would induce him to fix the price as high as possible. This is the very evil against which the rule is directed. † A director has a duty not to make a personal profit out of his connection with the company. This rule applies even if no loss is suffered by the company. However, if he does he must count for the profit to the company. Fruity has make a personal profit in connection with FAA and CLC. The FAA may suffer no loss due to FAA makes large profits selling the organic green product. Case: Industrial Development Consultants Ltd v Cooley [1 972] Facts: The managing director of IDS attempted to secure a contract on Id’s behalf with the Eastern Gas Board. KGB indicated to him that they were not prepared to deal with IDS but might be prepared to contract with the director (Cooley) personally. Cooley then represented to IDS that he was ill and was allowed to terminate his contract t short notice. He then negotiated with KGB and obtained the consultancy for himself. Held: He must account to IDS for the profit he obtained for the contracts. He was in breach of duty and it was immaterial that IDS could not have obtained the contract itself. Case: Cook v Deeds [1 91 6] Facts: Three directors of the Toronto Construction Co Ltd were supposed to be negotiating a construction contract on behalf of the company. Instead they formed another company and took the Contract for themselves. They were holders of 75% of the share capital of Toronto Construction, and used this charity to pass a resolution at general meeting that the company had no interest in the contract. Held: A director can normally keep a personal profit the company consents, but this consent is invalid if the director concerned controls the voting at general meeting. This was fraud on the minority. Section 131 (1) requires a director who is directly or indirectly interested in a contract with his company to declare promptly the nature of that interest at meeting of directors. Section 132(1) imposes a broad duty on directors at all the times to act honestly and exercise reasonable diligence in the exercise of heir power and the discharge of the duties of their office. This is based on a question of fact: case Yen Hinge enterprise Sad Bad v Dates Dry Eng pooh Aka [1 988] Regarding the extend of the meaning of â€Å"honesty’, the case of Multi Pack Singapore pet Ltd ( In Receivership ) v Interact Ltd Or’s [1994] explains that this does not mean that the directors had acted fraudulently, it means that he must act bona fide in the interests of the company and that in exercising his creation, the director should act only to promote and advance the interest of the company’. Misuse of confidential information How to cite Law Revision, Essays

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Importance Of Health Literacy Samples †

Question: Discuss about the Importance Of Health Literacy. Answer: Importance of Health Literacy Literacy is the ability to read, write, and interpret information. Health literacy involves the ability of an individual to acquire, interpret and understand information on health to help in making critical health decisions. Communication is the process through which information is conveyed from one point to another or from one person to another through different channels. Effective communication is important in our day to day lives, because it is through effective communication that we are able to listen, learn and understand. Effective communication can make an illiterate person understand any information being conveyed. One of the major problems in Australia that increase the rate of chronic diseases and illness is illiteracy. The fact that a patient is not able to read, write and interpret medical information can adversely affect the patients health in various ways (Hernandez, 2013).. It is the responsibility of both the patient and the doctor or nurse to make sure that each of t hem is on the same track in order to help the patient understand what is expected of them when it comes to medication and self-management. Effective communication goes a long way in helping a patient in understanding their Illness, what is expected of them during their treatment and how to take their medication. Strategies There are different effective intervention strategies which can help improve the illiterate people in being at par with their doctors or nurses in charge this includes; using oral literacy. People come from different backgrounds and ethnic group, this is the same even in patients who have chronic illness. They have different backgrounds, and their level of literacy is also different. Oral literacy is one of the most important strategies that should be put in place to help the patients understand the doctor and nurses. Oral literacy is a basic need for better communication between the patient and the doctor, the patients need to get the information as intended, and they also need to understand the information given to them. The doctors are advised to use a plain language without jargons which can be clearly understood by the patient. They also need to speak slow and fluently explaining to the patient what they are suffering from, the kind medication and treatment prescribed to them an d how they should take the medication. Doctors should create a more interactive conversation to understand the patients concern as well so that the patients need can be looked into during their conversation, and through this the patient will absolutely understand their conditions and the reason for their medication. The second strategy is print literacy, print is one of the most common ways for doctor-patient communication within the system. There is a high possibility that most patients do not understand most of the prescriptions written by the doctor and directions written on their medication. Print literacy helps the patient to understand doctors prescriptions among other things (De Chesnay Anderson 2012). People who are illiterate will barely understand most of the writings on their medication and this can lead to an overdose or underdose. It is important that when the doctor is writing they should use big fonts, clear words with plain language. They should include appropriate diagrams for illustrations, the writing should be straight to the point explaining for example what time to take medications and the writing should avoid errors because this might bring confusion to the patient. Numeracy is an element of health literacy referring to the ability to understand numbers. It is important t o put in place a system that helps the patents understand numerical information since this is always part of print as a means of passing important information to the patient regarding his or her health. Illiterate patients cannot understand most of the numeric information that are written on their medication or prescriptions. Most of these patients whose suffer from chronic diseases are old, tired and just need great care and time to adjust, most of them cannot perform even a simple calculation. These are some of the reasons as to why it is even hard for them to determine when their next appointment schedule is. Ideas learnt As a nurse student, I have learned is that its not good to make an assumption about a patient with chronic illness, thinking that they are aware of what they are doing at health facilities. This is important because it will help me make sure they understand their conditions, treatment, and medication by giving them the right information that they need and allowing them to ask as many questions for this will give them the knowledge for their conditions and the responsibilities required of them. The second idea is that, when dealing with a chronically ill patient, it is important that the information is tailored in a way that it conveys the important information regarding the patients health and at the same time educating the patient about their health. The information should be easy to read, understand and interpret for the purpose of a positive feedback (Schwartzberg, Vangeest, Wang 2005). Another idea learned is the importance of motivation, patients with chronic illness are very v ulnerable and they need great care. When attending to patients with chronic illness its important that they are motivated to take their medication, to come for checkups on the required date and to make them understand that their condition is manageable but its upon them to take care of themselves too and to have a positive attitude. The way you treat a patient can either help them in improving their health conditions or can make their conditions worse because they may decide to leave medication and take it only when they feel unwell or skip the checkup dates because they wont see the essence of it. Observations Health literacy is a major concern because of its effects both the literate and the illiterate. Due to low health literacy, there are a lot of problems that many people incur due to their low level of literacy. In these scenarios, the first observation made is that there are people who can read and write but the cannot understand the medical terms and this leads to the misunderstanding of how to take their medication and this can lead to adverse effects on the patient. It is necessary that health literacy education is important to all people across the board. Another observation made is that most doctors give medication to the patients without explanation as to why they need the medication, what are they ailing from, and what is the medicine meant to treat and for how long. The medics leave the patients to figure out all these questions on their own and this is the reason as to why some patients wont take medication because they do not know what they are suffering from and the kind o f medication given to them (Pleasant, Greer, Zarcadoolas 2013). If the doctors could clearly explain this kind of issues then they would increase the chances of making their patients aware of why they need medication. The last observation made is that there are patients who cannot read well and write. This group of patients has a big problem on reading the labels on their medication and this often leads to underdose or overdose, or even poor timing of the medication. These patients do not know the time intervals for their medication because its written in a medical language that is complicated and they can barely understand. The doctors should, therefore, write in a layman language that anyone can understand (Bastable, Gramet, Jacobs, Sopczyk 2011). Another observation related to this is the fact that some patients cannot write and on their visits to the doctor they are given forms to fill and this is a turn off for those who cannot read and write and because they do not want to s how their level of illiteracy they prefer going back without getting assistance. Brown bag medication review is when the patients are encouraged to bring in all their medications for review. Brown bag medication is of importance when dealing with patients with chronic illness because it will help in understanding the patients progress and the kind of medication they are taking. Brown bag medication is important for establishing the reasons as to why the patient, for example, could not be responding to the medication. Secondly, this review is of help to the patient because if in case of a new symptom the doctor can easily detect the cause of the symptom and find an alternative. Lastly, this medication review helps the doctor in checking if the patient is taking their medications correctly as directed. Communication tip Talk-ask-talk way of communication is important because it gives room for interactions with the patient to understand how well the patient is conversant with their illness, medication and the condition among others things. Teach-back method in this case is important because during the interactions the patient is able to learn a few things, and with teach back method the patient is given time to say it back what he is being told and this is one of the most effective methods of making sure that the patient has completely understood what he is being told or advised by the doctor to do. Roles of nurse navigator Nurse navigator is a registered nurse who has an in-depth understanding of the health system and responsible for providing the needed services for patients with chronic illness who require a high level of clinical care (Bastable, 2014). Navigators can help the low health literate patients who cannot read and right by helping the patients find the right service, at the right time and the right place. Secondly, they should help the patients by creating an interactive communication with the patient to get the patients concern and answer, this makes the patient free to ask anything they are concerned about. Lastly, the navigators should educate the patients so that they can understand their conditions and other issues of concern through this the patient can be able to make clear decisions hence improving their health outcome. In conclusion, advocating for health literacy is very vital, since it is the only key through which people are able to understand their health conditions, reasons f or them to take their medication as prescribed and this will definitely change the worldview of the patients with chronic illness. References Bastable, S. B. 2014.Nurse as educator: principles of teaching and learning for nursing practice. Burlington, MA, Jones Bartlett Learning. Bastable, S. B., Gramet, P., Jacobs, K., Sopczyk, D. L. 2011.Health professional as educator: principles of teaching and learning. Sudbury, MA, Jones Bartlett Learning. De Chesnay, M., Anderson, B. A. 2012.Caring for the vulnerable: perspectives in nursing theory, practice, and research. Burlington, MA, Jones Bartlett Learning. Hernandez, L. M. 2013.Health literacy: improving health, health systems, and health policy around the world : workshop summary. Pleasant, A., Greer, D. S., Zarcadoolas, C. 2013.Advancing health literacy: a framework for understanding and action. San Francisco, Calif, Jossey-Bass. Schwartzberg, J. G., Vangeest, J., Wang, C. 2005.Understanding health literacy: implications for medicine and public health. [Chicago, Ill.], American Medical Association.

Saturday, November 30, 2019

The Great Lakes Company

Perform an analysis of the social/Demographic, Technological, Economic, Environmental/Geographic, and Political/Legal/Governmental segments to understand the general environment facing Great Lakes. Describe how Great Lakes will be affected by each of these external factors There were alarming statistics about leaded gasoline. It was said to have a lot of effects on people and society as a whole. This is as far as their health is concerned. For instance, it caused blood pressure and other health risks to adults and on the other hand, affected their body systems.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on The Great Lakes Company specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Children were also greatly affected. This can be explained from the fact that they absorb large amounts of ingested lead in their bodies. Also, children in developing countries ended up having low intelligence. In other countries like Egypt, it caused a lot of heart a ttacks and in extreme cases premature deaths. As a result of this, there was a lot of international attention and pressure. Many experts started advocating for lead to be phased and in the process reduce lead poisoning. On the other hand, it was also meant to reduce human exposure to lead. This will force the company to devise better ways of involving all stakeholders to come up with a long term solution. On the other hand, the company will continually be blamed for any health complications. Technologically, many cars in developing countries are still using leaded gasoline. This means that they have not embraced technology well to come up with better ways of eliminating lead as an additive. As much as this is being advocated for, the demand for leaded gasoline is still high. Also, Great Lakes did not anticipate that it will have to deal with this issue in any way because of such complexities. This can be explained from the fact that other developing countries don’t have refin eries to produce unleaded gas. On the other hand, most cars don’t have catalytic converters. Leaded gasoline has been said to have a lot of environmental effects. For instance, it has adverse effects on the quality of air. It is extremely harmful. Lead particles are inhaled in air and absorbed by the soil. As a result, environmental groups have been putting pressure on the company to stop selling leaded gasoline.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most of these environmentalists have been arguing that the company should ban TEL by 2010. This seems to be unrealistic because developing countries can’t refine unleaded gas. On the other hand, it has forced the company to commit itself to a lot of environmental responsibilities. There is a suggestion that the company should use profits from Octel to transit away from TEL. The company admits that although lead additive is its greatest money maker, it is still harmful to the environment. This has forced Great Lakes to agree that the eventual elimination of leaded gas line is necessary. Should the company stop the production of leaded gasoline, many countries will be affected. This is because most of them have not made a transition from the use of leaded gasoline to unleaded gasoline. Most governments lack regulation on the way forward as far as leaded gasoline is concerned. This can be explained from the fact that many developing nations have not been able to eliminate lead as an additive. Any positive developments in the elimination of lead as an additive have been overshadowed by lead problems in most developing nations. This has put the company in a tricky position as they are not certain on the way forward. Demand for leaded gasoline is still high, and the company can not just discontinue production without a clear path to follow. Analyze the lead additives industry in the US using the five fo rces of competition model. Describe the impact of each of the five forces on the industry and based on this analysis, determine if the industry is attractive or unattractive The external environment is very tricky and unpredictable in that case. This is because the lead additives industry is being blamed for many environmental problems. Environmentalists want it banned by 2010.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on The Great Lakes Company specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The industry environment, on the other hand, is very flexible as many companies are reinventing themselves to produce less harmful products. There is no competition in the industry as most of them have switched to other products. This industry is attractive because there is a lot of demand from developing countries (Hitt et al., 2010, 8). This industry is attractive based on good returns that Great Lakes’ has continued to get. It will continue being attractive because of the high demand for lead additives from developing countries. These nations don’t have the necessary refineries to refine leaded gasoline. This is a very lucrative industry in the short run as later on people will move to unleaded gasoline. For a company to survive in this industry, it needs a good strategy. This means that more attention should be paid on environmental issues and in the long run transit to unleaded gasoline as technology is moving in that direction. The lead additives industry has the necessary assets and skills to transit and engages in more environmentally conscious activities. For instance, it is argued that it will be less costly for Great Lakes to transit from producing leaded additives. The industry has the necessary resources to attract the best skills that will help it to come up with the best way forward.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Strategy implementation will not be a problem because there is a general good will to help the industry move forward (Hitt et al., 2010, 13). This means that all stakeholders will have to be involved in proper strategy implementation. On the other hand, governments are committed to ensuring that they enhance the use of unleaded gasoline. As long as developing countries don’t find a better solution to enhance their refineries, the lead additives industry will still register high returns. This is because most vehicles in those countries are still using leaded gasoline. Describe who Great Lakes’ immediate, impeding and invisible competitors are and how Great Lakes measures up against these competitors Ethyl Corporation (which bought Dow chemical) is Great Lakes immediate competitor. In the early stages, the company was able to maintain its top presence in the business. Great Lakes’ has continued to develop and produce a variety of specialty products for the market. The National lead company is also another competitor. Although there is a lot of demand for leaded gasoline in developing countries, the company does not have any impending and invisible competitors. This is because its major competitors are no longer involved in the production of tetraethyl lead (TEL). Tetraethyl lead is the additive for gasoline. The company has continued to flourish in all scenarios thereby controlling 90% of the market. This market has not attracted a lot of competitors because of numerous environmental issues. Such trends are expected to continue because of large capital costs. This is in terms of building new plants and a lot of unsavory publicity. The company faces competition from other chemical producers. To remain more competitive, it has continued to develop and produce a variety of chemicals for sustainability. Describe the main capabilities of Great Lakes The company can continue supplying lead additives to other developing countries. This is for the f oreseeable future as demand is expected to remain high. Also, competition is expected to be minimal. On the other hand, the company has the capabilities to increase its profits in the long run. This is because developing countries will only switch to unleaded gasoline when it’s economically feasible for them to do so. Great Lakes’ is still in a better position to ensure that it adheres to good environmental practices. This is because environmental concerns have continued to be raised against the company thereby affecting its operations in a broad way. A lot of responsibilities have been put on the company to bring about these environmental changes. The company can still get out of lead additives production and rescue its reputation. In this case, it will be able to take a big financial hit. On the other hand, the company can phase out its participation in the market place. This can be done with a five-year deadline. Also, it is also in a good position to push developin g countries to switch to unleaded gasoline. Reference List Hitt, M., Ireland, D., Hoskisson, R. (2010). Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases: Competitiveness and Globalization. USA: South Western Educational Publishing. This report on The Great Lakes Company was written and submitted by user Hudson Mejia to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Exploitation of Canadian Abori essays

Exploitation of Canadian Abori essays Exploitation of the Canadian Aboriginal The Plains Natives of Canada, two major tribes being the Cree and the Blackfoot, faced many obstacles in their pre-treaty days. These obstacles made them more open to a change in life-style proposed to them by the inflow of Europeans to the West of Canada, Native land. Although these propositions seemed to be the answer to their problems, more issues arose then the Plains People were capable of dealing with. The largest issue was the onset of cultural shock due to the assimilation into European culture, and the loss of their traditions and identities. In order to understand the reasons why the Natives of Western Canada felt obligated to sign a treaty that would end traditional life-styles, it is imperative to first consider the restraints that they were facing pre-treaty. Basically, the Plains Indians were nomadic, and relied heavily on their primary source for food and utilities. This treasured animal was the buffalo. Upon the introduction of horses and guns by European traders, hunting buffalo became easy and successful. The unfortunate effect of these untraditional hunts, was the disappearance of this food source. Also, Non-Natives contributed to this exhaustion of buffalo by hunting for hides. "Non-Native hunters were particularly objectionable: they used repeating rifles to kill countless buffalo for their hides, and they poisoned the carcasses with strychnine to destroy wolves so that they could obtain these animals too." (Ray, p.210) This, of course, had major repercussions for the Plains Natives, who were in desp erate need to find a new way of survival. The Europeans entered this scene with a solution to the Native's dwindling food source. They brought with them the techniques of farming and ranching, which they offered to teach the Plains People. "One of the major feature of Treaty 7 that distinguished it from the previous numbered treaties was the commitment by the...